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The Nature and Measurement of Anger

  • Charles D. Spielberger
  • Eric C. Reheiser
Chapter

Abstract

The nature of anger, hostility, and aggression and the relations among these concepts are considered in this chapter. The evolution of the concepts of anger and aggression from the ancient writings of Plato and Aristotle to those of Darwin and Freud is noted. Recent research findings on the relationships between anger, Type A behavior, and coronary heart disease (CHD) are also reviewed, and the essential distinction between anger as an emotional state and individual differences in anger as a personality trait is clarified. Conceptual definitions of anger, hostility, and aggression are examined as components of the AHA! Syndrome, in which anger is clearly an essential emotional motivator of both hostility and aggression. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the ubiquitous nature of anger in daily life and the use of the State–Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) to assess the experience, expression, and control of anger in research and the diagnosis and treatment of anger-related problems.

Keywords

Personality Trait Coronary Heart Disease Patient Anger Expression Reaction Inventory Trait Anger 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of South FloridaTampaUSA

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