Advertisement

Appraisals and Anger: How Complete Are the Usual Appraisal Accounts of Anger?

  • Leonard Berkowitz
Chapter

Abstract

Without questioning that people’s appraisals of the situations they are in can greatly determine what emotions they experience, this chapter argues that traditional appraisal accounts of anger genesis are seriously incomplete and that anger can at times arise in ways not anticipated by appraisal formulations. Anger is here regarded as an experience that is part of a constellation of physiological, motoric, and cognitive responses, all related associatively to the inclination to attack and/or injure an available target. It is proposed that this feeling can arise independently of appraisals when the situation is decidedly unpleasant and/or external stimuli are present or bodily movements are made that are linked associatively with aggression. Various problems with conventional appraisal research are discussed, such as the uncertainty at times as to whether the appraisals are antecedents to or consequences of the emotion and whether the features often said to be a requirement for anger to arise are indeed necessary.

Keywords

Facial Expression Appraisal Theorist Core Relational Theme Coping Potential Angry Feeling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adelmann, P. K., & Zajonc, R. B. (1989). Facial efference and the experience of emotion. Annual Review of Psychology, 40, 249–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, C. A., & Anderson, K. B. (1998). Temperature and aggression: Paradox, controversy, and a (fairly) clear picture. In R. G. Geen, & E. Donnerstein (Eds.), Human aggression: Theories, research, and implications for social policy (pp. 247–298). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  3. Averill, J. (1982). Anger and aggression: An essay on emotion. New York: Springer-Vela.Google Scholar
  4. Bargh, J. A., & Chartrand, T. L. (1999). The unbearable automaticity of being. American Psychologist, 54, 462–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baron, R. A., Neumann, J. H., & Geddes, D. (1999). Social and personal determinants of workplace aggression: Evidence for the impact of perceived injustice and Type A behavior pattern. Aggressive Behavior, 25, 281–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bem, D. J. (1972). Self-perception theory. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 2–62). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  7. Berkowitz, L. (1983). Aversively stimulated aggression: Some parallels and differences in research with animals and humans. American Psychologist, 38, 1135–1144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berkowitz, L. (1989). Frustration-aggression hypothesis: Examination and reformulation. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 59–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berkowitz, L. (1990). On the formation and regulation of anger and aggression: A cognitive-neoassociationistic analysis. American Psychologist, 45, 494–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: Its causes, consequences, and control. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  11. Berkowitz, L. (1998). Affective aggression: The role of stress, pain, and negative affect. In R. G. Geen, & E. Donnerstein (Eds.), Human aggression: Theories, research, and implications for social policy (pp.49–72). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  12. Berkowitz, L. (1999). Anger. In T. Dalgleish, & M. Power (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 411–428). Chichester, UK/New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Berkowitz, L. (2000). Causes and consequences of feelings. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berkowitz, L. (2002). Affect, aggression, and antisocial behavior. In R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp. 804–823). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Berkowitz, L., Cochran, S., & Embree, M. (1981). Physical pain and the goal of aversively stimulated aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 687–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Berkowitz, L., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2004). Toward an understanding of the determinants of anger. Emotion, 4, 107–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bower, G. H. (1981). Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 36, 129–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Catalano, R., Dooley, D., Novaco, R., Wilson, G., & Hough, R. (1993). Using ECA survey data to examine the effects of job layoffs on violent behavior. Hospital and Community Psychology, 44, 874–878.Google Scholar
  19. Clore, G. L., Ortony, A., Dienes, B., & Fujita, F. (1993). Where does anger dwell?. In R. S. Wyer, Jr., & T. K. Srull (Eds.), Advances in social cognition: Perspectives on anger and emotion (Vol. 6, pp. 57–87). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  20. Dill, J. C., & Anderson, C. A. (1995). Effects of frustration justification on hostile aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 21, 359–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dollard, J., Doob, L., Miller, N., Mowrer, O., & Sears, R. (1939). Frustration and aggression. New Haven: Yale University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Donnerstein, E., & Wilson, D. W. (1976). Effects of noise and perceived control on ongoing and subsequent aggressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 774–781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Duclos, S. E., & Laird, J. D. (2001). The deliberate control of emotional experience through control of expressions. Cognition and Emotion, 15, 27–56.Google Scholar
  24. Duclos, S. E., Laird, J. D., Schneider, E., Sexter, M., Stern, L., & Van Lighten, O. (1989). Emotion-specific effects of facial expressions and postures on emotional experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 100–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ekman, P. (1984). Expression and the nature of emotion. In K. Scherer, & P. Ekman (Eds.), Approaches to emotion (pp. 319–344). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  26. Ekman, P. (1993). Facial expression and emotion. American Psychologist, 48, 384–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ellsworth, P. C., & Scherer, K. R. (2003). Appraisal processes in emotion. In R. J. Davidson, H. Goldsmith, & K. R. Scherer (Eds.), Handbook of the affective sciences. UK: Oxford University Press: New York/Oxford.Google Scholar
  28. Ellsworth, P. C., & Smith, C. A. (1988). From appraisal to emotion: Differences among unpleasant feelings. Motivation and Emotion, 12, 271–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fernandez, E., & Turk, D. C. (1995). The scope and significance of anger in the experience of chronic pain. Pain, 61, 165–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Flack, W. F., Jr., Laird, J. D., & Cavallaro, L. A. (1999). Separate and combined effects of facial expressions and bodily postures on emotional feelings. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 203–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Frijda, N. H. (1993). The place of appraisal in emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 357–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Frijda, N. H., Kuipers, P., & ter Schure, E. (1989). Relations among emotion, appraisal, and emotional action readiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 212–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Frijda, N. H., & Zeelenberg, M. (2001). Appraisal: What is the dependent? In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal processes in emotion. Oxford, UK/New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Geen, R. G. (1968). Effects of frustration, attack, and prior training in aggressiveness upon aggressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9, 316–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Geen, R. G. (1978). Effects of attack and uncontrollable noise on aggression. Journal of Research in Personality, 9, 270–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Geen, R. G. (1998). Aggression and antisocial behavior. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology. 4th ed (Vol. II, pp. 317–356). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  37. Gigerenzer, G. (1991). From tools to theories: A heuristic of discovery in cognitive psychology. Psychological Review, 98, 254–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Green, D. P., Glaser, J., & Rich, A. (1998). From lynching to gay bashing: The elusive connection between economic conditions and hate crime. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 82–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harmon-Jones, E., & Mills, J. (1999). Cognitive dissonance: Progress on a pivotal theory in social psychology. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Harmon-Jones, E., Sigelman, J. D., Bohlig, A., & Harmon-Jones, C. (2003). Anger, coping, and frontal cortical activity: The effect of coping potential on anger-induced left frontal activity. Cognition and Emotion, 17, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hatch, J. P., Moore, P. J., Borcherding, S., Cyr-Provost, M., Boutros., N. N., & Seleshi, E. (1992). Electromyographic and affective responses of episodic tension-type headache patients and headache-free controls during stressful task performance. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15, 89–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Izard, C. E. (1971). The face of emotion. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  43. Jo, E. (1993). Combining physical sensations and ideas in the construction of emotional experiences. Madison,WI: Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  44. Keltner, D., Ellsworth, P. C., & Edwards, K. (1993). Beyond simple pessimism: Effects of sadness and anger on social perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 740–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Laird, J. D., Wagener, J. J., Halal, M., & Szegda, M. (1982). Remembering what you fell: The effect of emotion on memory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 646–658.Google Scholar
  46. Laird, J. D. (1984). The real role of facial response in the experience of emotion: A reply to Tourangeau and Ellsworth, among others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 909–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Laird, J. D., & Bresler, C. (1992). The process of emotional experience: A self-perception theory. In M. S. Clark (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology (vol. 13, pp. 213–234). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  48. Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. Oxford, UK/New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Lerner, J. S., & Keltner, D. (2000). Beyond valence: Toward a model of emotion-specific influences on judgment and choice. Cognition and Emotion, 14, 473–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lerner, J. S., & Keltner, D. (2001). Fear, anger, and risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 146–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Leventhal, H., & Scherer, K. R. (1987). The relationship of emotion to cognition: A functional approach to a semantic controversy. Cognition and Emotion, 1, 3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lewis, M. (1993). The development of anger and rage. In R. A. Glick, & S. P. Roose (Eds.), Rage, power, and aggression (pp. 148–168). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Lindsay, J. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2000). From antecedent conditions to violent actions: A general affective aggression model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 533–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mikula, G., Scherer, K. R., & Athenstaedt, U. (1998). The role of injustice in the elicitation of differential emotional reactions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 769–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mikulincer, M. (1988). Reactance and helplessness following exposure to unsolvable problems: The effects of attributional style. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 679–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Miller, N. E. (1948). Theory and experiment relating psychoanalytic displacement to stimulus-response generalization. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 43, 155–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Miller, I. W., & Norman, W. H. (1979). Learned helplessness in humans: A review and attribution theory model. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 93–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Neumann, R. (2000). The causal influences of attributions on emotions: A procedural priming approach. Psychological Science, 11, 179–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Neumann, R., & Strack, F. (2000). “Mood contagion”: The automatic transfer of mood between persons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 211–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Oatley, K., & Jenkins, J. M. (1996). Understanding emotions. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  61. Ortony, A., Clore, G. L., & Collins, A. (1988). The cognitive structure of emotions. New York: Cambridge U. Press.Google Scholar
  62. Parkinson, B. (1999). Relations and dissociations between appraisal and emotion ratings of reasonable and unreasonable anger and guilt. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 347–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Parkinson, B., & Manstead, A. S. R. (1992). Appraisal as a cause of emotion. In M. S. Clark (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 13, pp. 122–149). Newbury Park, CA. Sage. stories and social life. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 295–323.Google Scholar
  64. Quigley, B. M., & Tedeschi, J. T. (1996). Mediating effects of blame attributions on feelings of anger. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 1280–1288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Robinson, M. D., & Clore, G. L. (2001). Simulation, scenarios, and emotional appraisal: Testing the convergence of real and imagined reactions to emotional stimuli. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1520–1532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Roseman, I. J. (1991). Appraisal determinants of discrete emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 5, 161–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Roseman, I. J., Antoniou, A. A., & Jose, P. E. (1996). Appraisal determinants of emotions: Constructing a more accurate and comprehensive theory. Cognition and Emotion, 10, 241–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Roseman, I. J., & Smith, C. A. (2001). Appraisal theory: Overview, assumptions, varieties, controversies. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal processes in emotion. UK/New York: Oxford University Press: Oxford.Google Scholar
  69. Roseman, I. J., Spindel, M. S., & Jose, P. E. (1990). Appraisals of emotion-eliciting events: Testing a theory of discrete emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 899–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Roseman, I. J., Wiest, C., & Swartz, T. S. (1994). Phenomenology, behaviors and goals differentiate discrete emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 206–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Russell, J. A., & Fehr, B. (1994). Fuzzy concepts in a fuzzy hierarchy: Varieties of anger. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 186–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Scherer, K. R. (1984). Emotion as a multicomponent process: A model and some cross-cultural data. In P. Shaver (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology. Vol. 5 (pp. 37–63). CA: Sage: Newbury Park.Google Scholar
  73. Scherer, K. R. (1993). Studying the emotion-antecedent appraisal process: An expert system approach. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 325–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Scherer, K. R. (1999). Appraisal theory. In T. Dalgleish, & M. Power (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 637–663). Chichester, UK/New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  75. Scherer, K. R. (2001a). Appraisal considered as a process of multilevel sequential checking. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal processes in emotion (pp. 92–120). Oxford, UK/New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Scherer, K. R. (2001b). The nature and study of appraisal: A review of the issues. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal processes in emotion (pp. 369–391). Oxford, UK/New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Scherer, K. R., Schorr, A., & Johnstone, T. (2001). Appraisal processes in emotion. Oxford, UK/New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O’Connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: Further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1061–1086.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Siemer, M. (2001). Mood-specific effects on appraisal and emotion judgements. Cognition and Emotion, 15, 453–485.Google Scholar
  80. Smith, C. A., & Ellsworth, P. C. (1985). Patterns of cognitive appraisal in emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 813–838.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Smith, C. A., Haynes, K. N., Lazarus, R. S., & Pope, L. K. (1993). In search of the “hot” cognitions: Attributions, appraisals, and their relation to emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 916–929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Smith, C. A., & Kirby, L. D. (2000). Consequences require antecedents: Toward a process model of emotion elicitation. In J. P. Forgas (Ed.), Feeling and thinking: The role of affect in social cognition (pp. 83–106). Cambridge, UK/New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Smith, C. A., & Kirby, L. D. (2001). Toward delivering on the promise of appraisal theory. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal processes in emotion. UK/New York: Oxford University Press: Oxford.Google Scholar
  84. Smith, C. A., & Lazarus, R. S. (1993). Appraisal components, core relational themes, and the emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 233–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Solomon, R. C. (1993). The philosophy of emotions. In M. Lewis, & J. M.Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp.3–15). New York/London: Guilford.Google Scholar
  86. Stein, N. L., & Levine, L. J. (1989). The causal organization of emotional knowledge: A developmental study. Cognition and Emotion, 3, 343–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stein, N. L., & Levine, L. J. (1990). Making sense out of emotion: The representation and use of goal-structured knowledge. In N. L. Stein, B. Leventhal, & T. Trabasso (Eds.), Psychological and biological approaches to emotion (pp. 45–73). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  88. Stein, N. L., & Levine, L. J. (1999). The early emergence of emotional understanding and appraisal: implications for theories of development. In T. Dalgleish, & M. J. Power (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 383–408). Chichester, UK/New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  89. Stenberg, C. R., Campos, J. J., & Emde, R. N. (1983). The facial expression of anger in seven-month-old infants. Child Development, 54, 178–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Strack, F., Martin, L. L., & Stepper, S. (1988). Inhibiting and facilitating conditions of facial expressions: A nonobtrusive test of the facial feedback hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 768–777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sugimoto, J. D., & Oltjenbruns, K. A. (2001). The environment of death and its influence on police officers in the United States. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 43, 145–155.Google Scholar
  92. Tomkins, S. S. (1962, 1963). Affect, imagery, consciousness. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  93. Toren, P., Wolmer, L., Weizman, R., Magal-Vardi, O., & Laor, N. (2002). Retraumatization of Israeli civilians during a reactivation of the Gulf War threat. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 190, 43–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tourangeau, R., & Ellsworth, P. C. (1979). The role of facial response in the experience of emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1519–1531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Venable, V. L., Carlson, C. R., & Wilson, J. (2001). The role of anger and depression in recurrent headache. Headache, 41, 21–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Walters, R., & Brown, M. (1963). Studies of reinforcement of aggression. III. Transfer of responses to an interpersonal situation. Child Development, 34, 563–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Weber, C., Arck, P., Mazurek, B., & Klapp, B. F. (2002). Impact of relaxation training on psychometric and immunologic parameters in tinnitus sufferers. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 52, 29–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Weiner, B., Graham, S., & Chandler, C. (1982). Pity, anger, and guilt: An attributional analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, 226–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Weiss, H. M., Suckow, K., & Cropanzano, R. (1999). Effects of justice conditions on discrete emotions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 786–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zillmann, D., Baron, R. A., & Tamborini, R. (1981). Social costs of smoking: Effects of tobacco smoke on hostile behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 11, 548–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations