In Situ Hybridization: Principles and Applications
In situ hybridization (ISH) has become an extremely useful tool for the clinical pathology laboratory to aid oncologists, geneticists, and infectious disease specialists in the diagnosis and treatment of their patients. ISH utilizes nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) probes to assess intact cells for various types of genetic alterations. Common applications of in situ hybridization include its use to detect cancer cells in cytological specimens, chromosomal alterations in resected tumor specimens that predict prognosis, and response to therapy of certain cancer types and microorganisms in various specimen types. ISH is typically performed either with fluorescently labeled probes or with probes that are subsequently visualized with a chromogen such as diaminobenzidine. If performed with fluorescently labeled probes, the technique is referred to as Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization, or FISH. Alternatively, if the technique is performed with a probe that requires subsequent visualization with a chemical reaction that produces a colored chemical at the site of the probe (a chromogen), the technique is referred to as Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization, or CISH.
KeywordsChromosomal Paint Metaphase Spread Hybridization Temperature Telomeric Probe Conventional Karyotyping
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