Definition and Classification of Concussion
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of hospitalization and death among children and adolescents and therefore represents a major public health problem. In the past decade, increased attention was given to milder forms of TBI, such as concussion. Despite this increased recognition, a substantial lack of agreement persists regarding the definition and classification of concussions. Numerous controversies exist with regard to methods of assessing severity of TBI and systems of grading concussion severity. The goal of this chapter is to provide a review of the definition and classification of concussions, with special attention to pediatric populations, as well as to review several nosological issues that arise during the course of both clinical and research work.
KeywordsTraumatic Brain Injury Traumatic Brain Injury Severity Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Mild Head Injury Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury
- (1966) Committee on Head Injury Nomenclature of the Congress of neurological surgeons: glossary of head injury, including some definitions of injury to the cervical spine. Clinical Neurosurgery, 12, 386–394.Google Scholar
- American Academy of Neurology. (1997). Practice parameter: The management of concussion in sports (summary statement). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee. Neurology, 48(3), 581–585.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Ashwal, S. (2010). Neuroimaging in pediatric traumatic brain injury. In V. A. Anderson & K. O. Yeates (Eds.), Pediatric traumatic brain injury: new directions in clinical and translational research. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Bodin, D., & Yeates, K. O. (2010). Traumatic Brain Injury. In R. J. Shaw & D. DeMaso (Eds.), Textbook of pediatric psychosomatic medicine. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
- Carroll, L. J., Cassidy, J. D., Holm, L., Kraus, J., & Coronado, V. G. (2004). Methodological issues and research recommendations for mild traumatic brain injury: the WHO collaborating centre task force on mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. Supplement, 43, 113–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Colorado Medical Society. (1991). Report of the Sports Medicine Committee: Guidelines for the Management of Concussion in Sports (revised). Denver: Colorado Medical Society.Google Scholar
- Committee on Quality Improvement, American Academy of Pediatrics (1999) The management of minor closed head injury in children. Pediatrics, 104, 1407–1415.Google Scholar
- Langlois, J. A., Rutland-Brown, W., & Thomas, K. E. (2006). Traumatic Brain injury in the United States: Emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.Google Scholar
- Makdissi, M. (2009). Is the simple versus complex classification of concussion a valid and useful differentiation? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(Suppl 1), i23–i27. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2009.058206.
- World Health Organization. (1992). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- Yeates, K. O. (2010). Traumatic brain injury. In K. O. Yeates, M. D. Ris, H. G. Taylor, & B. F. Pennington (Eds.), Pediatric neuropsychology: research, theory, and practice (2nd ed., pp. 112–146). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar