The past decade has seen efforts on the part of research, education and policy communities to create a dialogue about the potential relationship between cognitive neuroscience and both the science and practice of education. Notable examples include the publications from the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) of the OECD. Their 2002 report on learning sciences and the brain was recently followed by a report entitled ‘Understanding the brain: The birth of a learning science’ (2007). This book evaluated state of the art knowledge and insights from the cognitive sciences and neurosciences which are pertinent to education. It gives an agenda for the future development of this field and encourages collaboration between the learning sciences, brain research, and policy organizations. Likewise, the report ‘Brain Lessons’ (Jolles et al., 2006) and its earlier version ‘Learning to know the Brain’ (Jolles et al., 2005), published under the auspices of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, stated that the time is ripe for an active exchange between scientists from neuroscience, cognitive science, educational science and the practice of education.