Characterization of Groups, Loops, and Closure Conditions

  • Palaniappan Kannappan
Part of the Springer Monographs in Mathematics book series (SMM)


Groupoids, quasigroups, loops, semigroups, and groups are considered in this chapter. Closure conditions, isotopy, and groups are characterized by various identities. Functional equations arising out of Bol, Moufang, and extra loops are considered. Mediality, the left inverse property, Steiner loops, and generalized bisymmetry are treated. This chapter is devoted to algebraic identities (and their generalizations leading to the involvement of functional equations) connected to groups and well-known special loops such as Bol, Moufang, left inverse property (l.i.p.), and weak inverse property (w.i.p.). An identity in a binary system (such as transitivity, bisymmetry, distributivity, Bol, Moufang, etc.) induces a generalized identity—a functional equation—in a class of quasigroups. We treat several of them in this chapter. First we give some notation and definitions.


Abelian Group Functional Equation Closure Condition Moufang Loop Inverse Property 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag US 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pure MathematicsUniversity of WaterlooWaterloo ONCanada

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