Genes, Environment, and Cancer Disparities

  • Alexandra E. Shields
  • Stephanie M. Fullerton
  • Kenneth Olden

Eliminating health disparities is a national priority, as reflected in numerous federal initiatives (Institute of Medicine 2002; Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured 2003; Mayberry et al. 2000). The IOM “Crossing the Quality Chasm” (Institute of Medicine 2001) report cited the elimination of health disparities as one of its six priority goals for improving the quality of health care in the US, while the subsequent IOM report, “Unequal Treatment,” provided exhaustive documentation of racial/ethnic health disparities across a wide range of health care settings, diseases (including cancer), and clinical settings (Institute of Medicine 2002). Healthy People 2010 named the elimination of health disparities as one of two primary national goals for improving the health of Americans and explicitly called for reducing the number of new cancer cases as well as the illness, disability, and death caused by cancer (US Department of Health and Human Services 2000).


Cancer Risk Environmental Exposure Health Disparity Cancer Susceptibility Environmental Risk Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank Sharon Kardia, Nick Patterson, and David Christiani for critical comments on earlier drafts of this manuscript. Richard Kwong, Rosemarie Ramos, and Sara Weiner provided excellent research assistance. This chapter was supported by NIH grant NHGRI P20 HG003400 (AS) and the Disparities Program of the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center. SMF is supported, in part, by a grant to the Center for Genomics and Healthcare Equality (P50HG003374, National Human Genome Research Institute, Wylie Burke, PI).


  1. Adami HO, Hunter D, Trichopoulos D. Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology, 2nd Ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.Google Scholar
  2. Ambrosone CB. The promise and limitations of genome-wide association studies to elucidate the causes of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2007;9(6):114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antoniou A, Pharoah PD, Narod S, Risch HA, Eyfjord JE, Hopper JL, Loman N, Olsson H, Johannsson O, Borg A et al. Average risks of breast and ovarian cancer associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations detected in case series unselected for family history: a combined analysis of 22 studies. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;72(5):1117–1130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bach PB, Schrag D, Brawley OW, Galaznik A, Yakren S, Begg CB. Survival of blacks and whites after a cancer diagnosis. JAMA. 2002;287(16):2106–2113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbeau EM, Leavy-Sperounis A, Balbach ED. Smoking, social class, and gender: what can public health learn from the tobacco industry about disparities in smoking? Tob Control. 2004;13(2):115–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barreiro LB, Laval G, Quach H, Patin E, Quintana-Murci L. Natural selection has driven population differentiation in modern humans. Nat Genet. 2008;40(3):340–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berger M, Lund MJ, Brawley OW. Racial disparities in lung cancer. Curr Probl Cancer. 2007;31(3):202–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blanck HM, Gillespie C, Kimmons JE, Seymour JD, Serdula MK. Trends in fruit and vegetable consumption among U.S. men and women, 1994–2005. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5(2):A35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Boccia S, Sayed-Tabatabaei FA, Persiani R, Gianfagna F, Rausei S, Arzani D, La Greca A, D'Ugo D, La Torre G, van Duijn CM et al. Polymorphisms in metabolic genes, their combination and interaction with tobacco smoke and alcohol consumption and risk of gastric cancer: a case-control study in an Italian population. BMC Cancer. 2007;7:206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boffetta P, Trichopoulos D. Cancer of the Lung, Larynx, and Pleura. In: Adami H-O, Hunter D, Trichopoulos D, eds. Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology, 2nd Ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008, pp. 349–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bradley PK. Racial and ethnic disparities in cancer care and survivorship. Cancer Nurs. 2006;29(2 Suppl):22–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chang JH, Gertig DM, Chen X, Dite GS, Jenkins MA, Milne RL, Southey MC, McCredie MR, Giles GG, Chenevix-Trench G et al. CYP17 genetic polymorphism, breast cancer, and breast cancer risk factors: Aust Breast Cancer Family Study. Breast Cancer Res. 2005;7(4):R513–521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chao C, Zhang ZF, Berthiller J, Boffetta P, Hashibe M. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) Pro187Ser polymorphism and the risk of lung, bladder, and colorectal cancers: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(5):979–987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen J, Giovannucci EL, Hunter DJ. MTHFR polymorphism, methyl-replete diets and the risk of colorectal carcinoma and adenoma among U.S. men and women: an example of gene-environment interactions in colorectal tumorigenesis. J Nutr. 1999;129(2S Suppl):560S–564S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen J, Stampfer MJ, Hough HL, Garcia-Closas M, Willett WC, Hennekens CH, Kelsey KT, Hunter DJ. A prospective study of N-acetyltransferase genotype, red meat intake, and risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 1998;58(15):3307–3311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chu KC, Miller BA, Springfield SA. Measures of racial/ethnic health disparities in cancer mortality rates and the influence of socioeconomic status. J Natl Med Assoc. 2007;99(10):1092–1100, 1102–1104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Clapp R. Environment and health:4. Cancer. CMAJ. 2000;163(8):1009–1012.Google Scholar
  18. Clavel J. Progress in the epidemiological understanding of gene-environment interactions in major diseases: cancer. C R Biol. 2007;330(4):306–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cooper RS, Kaufman JS, Ward R. Race and genomics. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(12):1166–1170.Google Scholar
  20. Couch FJ. Genetic epidemiology of BRCA1. Cancer Biol Ther. 2004;3(6):509–514.Google Scholar
  21. Curtis E, Quale C, Haggstrom D, Smith-Bindman R. Racial and ethnic differences in breast cancer survival: how much is explained by screening, tumor severity, biology, treatment, comorbidities, and demographics? Cancer. 2008;112(1):171–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dong LM, Potter JD, White E, Ulrich CM, Cardon LR, Peters U. Genetic susceptibility to cancer: the role of polymorphisms in candidate genes. JAMA. 2008;299(20):2423–2436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fan C, Jin M, Chen K, Zhang Y, Zhang S, Liu B. Case-only study of interactions between metabolic enzymes and smoking in colorectal cancer. BMC Cancer. 2007;7:115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fearon ER. Human cancer syndromes: clues to the origin and nature of cancer. Science. 1997;278(5340):1043–1050.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Freeman HP, Chu KC. Determinants of cancer disparities: barriers to cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2005;14(4):655–669, v.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Garber JE, Offit K. Hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(2):276–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Garrod A. The incidence of alkaptonuria: a study in chemical individuality. Lancet. 1902;2:1616–1620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ghoussaini M, Song H, Koessler T, Al Olama AA, Kote-Jarai Z, Driver KE, Pooley KA, Ramus SJ, Kjaer SK, Hogdall E et al. Multiple loci with different cancer specificities within the 8q24 gene desert. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100(13):962–966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gudmundsson J, Sulem P, Rafnar T, Bergthorsson JT, Manolescu A, Gudbjartsson D, Agnarsson BA, Sigurdsson A, Benediktsdottir KR, Blondal T et al. Common sequence variants on 2p15 and Xp11.22 confer susceptibility to prostate cancer. Nat Genet. 2008;40(3):281–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Haga SB, Khoury MJ, Burke W. Genomic profiling to promote a healthy lifestyle: not ready for prime time. Nat Genet. 2003;34(4):347–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Haiman CA, Patterson N, Freedman ML, Myers SR, Pike MC, Waliszewska A, Neubauer J, Tandon A, Schirmer C, McDonald GJ et al. Multiple regions within 8q24 independently affect risk for prostate cancer. Nat Genet. 2007;39(5):638–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Haldane JBS. The interaction of nature and nurture. Ann Eugen. 1946;13:197–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Han J, Hankinson SE, De Vivo I, Spiegelman D, Tamimi RM, Mohrenweiser HW, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ. A prospective study of XRCC1 haplotypes and their interaction with plasma carotenoids on breast cancer risk. Cancer Res. 2003;63(23):8536–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hankinson S, Tamimi R, Hunter D. Breast cancer. In: Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology, 2nd Ed. Adami H-O, Hunter DJ, Trichopoulos D, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008, pp 403–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. He C, Tamimi RM, Hankinson SE, Hunter DJ, Han J. A prospective study of genetic polymorphism in MPO, antioxidant status, and breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;113(3):585–594.Google Scholar
  36. Hemminki K, Forsti A, Lorenzo Bermejo J. Etiologic impact of known cancer susceptibility genes. Mutat Res. 2008;658(1–2):42–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hung RJ, McKay JD, Gaborieau V, Boffetta P, Hashibe M, Zaridze D, Mukeria A, Szeszenia- Dabrowska N, Lissowska J, Rudnai P et al. A susceptibility locus for lung cancer maps to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes on 15q25. Nature. 2008;452(7187):633–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hunter DJ. Gene-environment interactions in human diseases. Nat Rev Genet. 2005;6:287–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Institute of Medicine. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 2001.Google Scholar
  40. Institute of Medicine. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Smedley BD, Stith AY, Nelson AR, eds. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2002.Google Scholar
  41. Institute of Medicine. The Future of the Public's Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2003a.Google Scholar
  42. Institute of Medicine. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy: Educating Public Helath Professionals for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2003b.Google Scholar
  43. Institute of Medicine. Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment: Moving Beyond the Nature/Nurture Debate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006.Google Scholar
  44. International HapMap Consortium. A haplotype map of the human genome. Nature. 2005;437(7063):1299–1320.Google Scholar
  45. Ioannidis JP, Ntzani EE, Trikalinos TA. ‘Racial’ differences in genetic effects for complex diseases. Nat Genet. 2004;36(12):1312–1318.Google Scholar
  46. Ishibe N, Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, Spiegelman D, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Kelsey KT, Hunter DJ. Cigarette smoking, cytochrome P450 1A1 polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study. Cancer Res. 1998;58(4):667–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Ishibe N, Wiencke JK, Zuo ZF, McMillan A, Spitz M, Kelsey KT. Susceptibility to lung cancer in light smokers associated with CYP1A1 polymorphisms in Mexican- and African-Americans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997;6(12):1075–1080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ito H, Matsuo K, Hamajima N, Mitsudomi T, Sugiura T, Saito T, Yasue T, Lee KM, Kang D, Yoo KY et al. Gene-environment interactions between the smoking habit and polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes, APE1 Asp148Glu and XRCC1 Arg399Gln, in Japanese lung cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25(8):1395–1401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jemal A, Tiwari RC, Murray T, Ghafoor A, Samuels A, Ward E, Feuer EJ, Thun MJ. Cancer Stat. CA Cancer J Clin. 2004;54(1):8–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. Access to Care for the Uninsured: An Update. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003.Google Scholar
  51. Khoury MJ, Little J, Burke W. Human genome epidemiology: scope and strategies. In: Khoury MJ, Little J, Burke W, eds. Human genome epidemiology: A Scientific Foundation for Using Genetic Information to Improve Health and Prevent Disease. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.Google Scholar
  52. Kiyohara C, Wakai K, Mikami H, Sido K, Ando M, Ohno Y. Risk modification by CYP1A1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms in the association of environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer: a case-control study in Japanese nonsmoking women. Int J Cancer. 2003;107(1):139–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kiyohara C, Yoshimasu K, Takayama K, Nakanishi Y. NQO1, MPO, and the risk of lung cancer: a HuGE review. Genet Med. 2005;7(7):463–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Krieger N. Stormy weather: race, gene expression, and the science of health disparities. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(12):2155–2160.Google Scholar
  55. Krieger N, Quesenberry C, Jr., Peng T, Horn-Ross P, Stewart S, Brown S, Swallen K, Guillermo T, Suh D, Alvarez-Martinez L et al. Social class, race/ethnicity, and incidence of breast, cervix, colon, lung, and prostate cancer among Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White residents of the San Francisco Bay Area, 1988–92 (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 1999;10(6):525–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Laso N, Lafuente MJ, Mas S, Trias M, Ascaso C, Molina R, Ballesta A, Rodriguez F, Lafuente A. Glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1 and GSTT1)-dependent risk for colorectal cancer. Anticancer Res. 2002;22(6A):3399–3403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Lee SS, Mountain J, Koenig B, Altman R, Brown M, Camarillo A, Cavalli-Sforza L, Cho M, Eberhardt J, Feldman M et al. The ethics of characterizing difference: guiding principles on using racial categories in human genetics. Genome Biol. 2008;9(7):404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lin WY, Chou YC, Wu MH, Jeng YL, Huang HB, You SL, Chu TY, Chen CJ, Sun CA. Polymorphic catechol-O-methyltransferase gene, duration of estrogen exposure, and breast cancer risk: a nested case-control study in Taiwan. Cancer Detect Prev. 2005;29(5):427–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lucci-Cordisco E, Zito I, Gensini F, Genuardi M. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer and related conditions. Am J Med Genet A. 2003;122A(4):325–334.Google Scholar
  60. Lynch HT, de la Chapelle A. Genetic susceptibility to non-polyposis colorectal cancer. J Med Genet. 1999;36(11):801–818.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Manolio TA, Brooks LD, Collins FS. A HapMap harvest of insights into the genetics of common disease. J Clin Invest. 2008;118(5):1590–1605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Matsuo K, Ito H, Wakai K, Hirose K, Saito T, Suzuki T, Kato T, Hirai T, Kanemitsu Y, Hamajima H et al. One-carbon metabolism related gene polymorphisms interact with alcohol drinking to influence the risk of colorectal cancer in Japan. Carcinogenesis. 2005;26(12):2164–2171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mayberry RM, Mill F, Ofilil E. Racial and ethnic differences in access to medical care. Medical Care Res Rev. 2000;57(suppl 1):108–145.Google Scholar
  64. Mittal RD, Srivastava DL. Cytochrome P4501A1 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene polymorphisms: gene-environment interaction and risk of prostate cancer. DNA Cell Biol. 2007;26(11):791–798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Moolchan ET, Fagan P, Fernander AF, Velicer WF, Hayward MD, King G, Clayton RR. Addressing tobacco-related health disparities. Addiction. 2007;102(Suppl 2):30–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mucci LA, Signorello LB, Adami H-O. 2008. Prostate cancer. In: Adami H-O, Hunter DJ, Trichopoulos D, eds. Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology. 2nd Ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008, pp 517–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mucci LA, Wedren S, Tamimi RM, Trichopoulos D, Adami HO. The role of gene-environment interaction in the aetiology of human cancer: examples from cancers of the large bowel, lung and breast. J Intern Med. 2001;249(6):477–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Narod SA, Foulkes WD. BRCA1 and BRCA2: 1994 and beyond. Nat Rev Cancer. 2004;4(9):665–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nelson HD, Huffman LH, Fu R, Harris EL. Genetic risk assessment and BRCA mutation testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility: systematic evidence review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143(5):362–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Newman LA, Martin IK. Disparities in breast cancer. Curr Probl Cancer. 2007;31(3):134–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Office of Budget and Management. Recommendations from the Interagency Committee for the Review of the Racial and Ethnic Standards to the Office of Management and Budget Concerning Changes to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Washington DC, 1997.Google Scholar
  72. Olden K. Opportunities in environmental health science research. Environ Health Perspect. 1993;101(1):6–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Olden K. Thinking big: four ways to advance environmental health research to answer the needs of public policy. Environ Health Perspect. 1997;105(5):464–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Olden K, Guthrie J, Newton S. A bold new direction for environmental health research. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(12):1964–1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pachkowski BF, Winkel S, Kubota Y, Swenberg JA, Millikan RC, Nakamura J. 2006. XRCC1 genotype and breast cancer: functional studies and epidemiologic data show interactions between XRCC1 codon 280 His and smoking. Cancer Res. 2006;66(5):2860–2868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Park SK, Yoo KY, Lee SJ, Kim SU, Ahn SH, Noh DY, Choe KJ, Strickland PT, Hirvonen A, Kang D. Alcohol consumption, glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Pharmacogenetics. 2000;10(4):301–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Peto J. Cancer epidemiology in the last century and the next decade. Nature. 2001;411(6835):390–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Phillips JM, Williams-Brown S. Cancer prevention among racial ethnic minorities. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2005;21(4):278–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Powers M, Faden R. Social Justice: The Moral Foundations of Public Health and Health Policy, Oxford: Oxford: University Press, 2006.Google Scholar
  80. Raaschou-Nielsen O, Sorensen M, Overvad K, Tjonneland A, Vogel U. Polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes, smoking and intake of fruit and vegetables in relation to lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2008;59(2):171–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Raghavan D. Disparities in cancer care: challenges and solutions. Oncology (Williston Park). 2007;21(4):493–496,499,503,506.Google Scholar
  82. Ratnasinghe DL, Yao SX, Forman M, Qiao YL, Andersen MR, Giffen CA, Erozan Y, Tockman MS, Taylor PR. Gene-environment interactions between the codon 194 polymorphism of XRCC1 and antioxidants influence lung cancer risk. Anticancer Res. 2003;23(1B):627–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Reddy S, Shapiro M, Morton R, Jr., Brawley OW. Prostate cancer in black and white Americans. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2003;22(1):83–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Risch N. Dissecting racial and ethnic differences. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(4):408–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Russo D, Purohit V, Foudin L, Salin M. Workshop on Alcohol Use and Health Disparities 2002: a call to arms. Alcohol. 2004;32(1):37–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rybicki BA, Neslund-Dudas C, Nock NL, Schultz LR, Eklund L, Rosbolt J, Bock CH, Monaghan KG. Prostate cancer risk from occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons interacting with the GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism. Cancer Detect Prev. 2006;30(5):412–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sakamoto H, Yoshimura K, Saeki N, Katai H, Shimoda T, Matsuno Y, Saito D, Sugimura H, Tanioka F, Kato S et al. Genetic variation in PSCA is associated with susceptibility to diffuse-type gastric cancer. Nat Genet. 2008;40(6):730–740.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sankar P, Cho MK, Condit CM, Hunt LM, Koenig B, Marshall P, Lee SS, Spicer P. Genetic research and health disparities. JAMA. 2004;291(24):2985–2989.Google Scholar
  89. Sarin R. A decade of discovery of BRCA1 and BRCA2: are we turning the tide against hereditary breast cancers? J Cancer Res Ther. 2006;2(4):157–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schwartz D, Collins F. Medicine. Environmental biology and human disease. Science. 2007;316(5825):695–696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Schwartz KL, Crossley-May H, Vigneau FD, Brown K, Banerjee M. Race, socioeconomic status and stage at diagnosis for five common malignancies. Cancer Causes Control. 2003;14(8):761–766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Shields AE, Fortun M, Hammonds E, King PA, Lerman C, Rapp R, Sullivan PF. The use of race variables in genetic studies of complex traits and the goal of reducing health disparities: a transdisciplinary perspective. Am Psychol. 2005;60(1):77–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Shriver MD, Parra EJ, Dios S, Bonilla C, Norton H, Jovel C, Pfaff C, Jones C, Massac A, Cameron N et al. Skin pigmentation, biogeographical ancestry and admixture mapping. Hum Genet. 2003;112(4):387–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Sorensen M, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Brasch-Andersen C, Tjonneland A, Overvad K, Autrup H. Interactions between GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms and smoking and intake of fruit and vegetables in relation to lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2007;55(2):137–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stacey SN, Manolescu A, Sulem P, Thorlacius S, Gudjonsson SA, Jonsson GF, Jakobsdottir M, Bergthorsson JT, Gudmundsson J, Aben KK et al. Common variants on chromosome 5p12 confer susceptibility to estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Nat Genet. 2008;40(6):703–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Stokols D, Fuqua J, Gress J, Harvey R, Phillips K, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Unger J, Palmer P, Clark MA, Colby SM et al. Evaluating transdisciplinary science. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5(supp 1):S21–S39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Stokols D, Harvey R, Gress J, Fuqua J, Phillips K. In vivo studies of transdisciplinary scientific collaboration: lessons learned and implication for active living research. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28(2S2):202–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Strate LL, Syngal S. Hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes. Cancer Causes Control. 2005;16(3):201–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Subar AF, Heimendinger J, Patterson BH, Krebs-Smith SM, Pivonka E, Kessler R. Fruit and vegetable intake in the United States: the baseline survey of the Five A Day for Better Health Program. Am J Health Promot. 1995;9(5):352–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Suzuki T, Matsuo K, Hirose K, Hiraki A, Kawase T, Watanabe M, Yamashita T, Iwata H, Tajima K. One-carbon metabolism-related gene polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29(2):356–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tan XL, Nieters A, Hoffmeister M, Beckmann L, Brenner H, Chang-Claude J. Genetic polymorphisms in TP53, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of colorectal cancer: evidence for gene-environment interaction? Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007;17(8):639–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tenesa A, Farrington SM, Prendergast JG, Porteous ME, Walker M, Haq N, Barnetson RA, Theodoratou E, Cetnarskyj R, Cartwright N et al. Genome-wide association scan identifies a colorectal cancer susceptibility locus on 11q23 and replicates risk loci at 8q24 and 18q21. Nat Genet. 2008;40(5):631–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Thorgeirsson TE, Geller F, Sulem P, Rafnar T, Wiste A, Magnusson KP, Manolescu A, Thorleifsson G, Stefansson H, Ingason A et al. A variant associated with nicotine dependence, lung cancer and peripheral arterial disease. Nature. 2008;452(7187):638–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tishkoff SA, Verrelli BC. Patterns of human genetic diversity: implications for human evolutionary history and disease. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 2003;4:293–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000.Google Scholar
  106. Wright S. Isolation by distance. Genetics. 1942;28:114–138.Google Scholar
  107. Yin J, Li J, Ma Y, Guo L, Wang H, Vogel U. The DNA repair gene ERCC2/XPD polymorphism Arg 156Arg (A22541C) and risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. Cancer Lett. 2005; 223(2):219–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zhang Y, Wise JP, Holford TR, Xie H, Boyle P, Zahm SH, Rusiecki J, Zou K, Zhang B, Zhu Y et al. Serum polychlorinated biphenyls, cytochrome P-450 1A1 polymorphisms, and risk of breast cancer in Connecticut women. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;160(12):1177–1183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Zheng T, Holford TR, Zahm SH, Owens PH, Boyle P, Zhang Y, Wise JP, Sr., Stephenson LP, Ali-Osman F. Cigarette smoking, glutathione-s-transferase M1 and t1 genetic polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2002;13(7):637–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhou W, Liu G, Miller DP, Thurston SW, Xu LL, Wain JC, Lynch TJ, Su L, Christiani DC. Polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes XRCC1 and ERCC2, smoking, and lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12(4):359–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Zhou W, Liu G, Thurston SW, Xu LL, Miller DP, Wain JC, Lynch TJ, Su L, Christiani DC. Genetic polymorphisms in N-acetyltransferase-2 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase, cumulative cigarette smoking, and lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11(1):15–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Zhou W, Thurston SW, Liu G, Xu LL, Miller DP, Wain JC, Lynch TJ, Su L, Christiani DC. The interaction between microsomal epoxide hydrolase polymorphisms and cumulative cigarette smoking in different histological subtypes of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10(5):461–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandra E. Shields
    • 1
  • Stephanie M. Fullerton
    • 2
  • Kenneth Olden
    • 3
  1. 1.Harvard/MGH Center on Genomics, Vulnerable Populations, and Health Disparities, and Institute for Health Policy, Massachusetts General Hospital/Partners HealthCareDepartment of MedicineBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medical History and Ethics and Center for Genomics and Healthcare EqualityUniversity of WashingtonWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health SciencesNational Institutes of HealthNorth CarolinaUSA

Personalised recommendations