Melanoma and Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma


Melanoma and primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are two cancers with distinct disparity profiles. In the case of melanoma, while fair-skinned individuals with high education and income are more likely to be diagnosed, those of low socioeconomic status (SES) have a higher case-fatality rate. Greater awareness of warning signs of melanoma and access to primary care/dermatologists likely account for disparities between persons of moderate-high SES and those of lower SES. In the case of HCC, however, the highest incidence and mortality rates in the United States occur among Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs); all other people of color have higher rates compared to non-Hispanic whites (Miller et al. 1996). Worldwide, APIs are approximately four times more frequently affected, and blacks and Hispanics approximately two times more frequently affected, than non-Hispanic whites. Even so, in the United States, the largest absolute number of HCC cases still occur among whites (El-Serag 2007).


Liver Cancer Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma Thick Melanoma Melanoma Survival Skin Cancer Screening 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ayata G, Gordon FD, Lewis WD, Pomfret E, Pomposelli JJ, Jenkins RL, Khettry U. Cryptogenic cirrhosis: clinicopathologic findings at and after liver transplantation. Hum Pathol 2002;33:1098–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bastani R, Maxwell AM, Jo AM. Hepatitis B testing for liver cancer control among Korean Americans. Ethnicity and Disease 2007;17:359–67.Google Scholar
  3. Beasley RP, Lin CC, Chien CS, Chen CJ, Hwang LY. Geographic distribution of HBsAg carriers in China. Hepatology 1982;2:553–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Beasley RP. Hepatitis B virus. The major etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 1988;61:1942–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Birkhead GS, Klein SJ, Candelas AR, O’Connell DA, Rothman JR, Feldman IS, Tsui DS, Cotroneo RA, Flanigan CA. Integrating multiple programme and policy approaches to hepatitis C prevention and care for injection drug users: a comprehensive approach. Int J Drug Policy 2007;18:417–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bolondi L, Sofia S, Siringo S, Gaiani S, Casali A, Zironi G, Piscaglia F, Gramantieri L, Zanetti M, Sherman M. Surveillance programme of cirrhotic patients for early diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: a cost effectiveness analysis. Gut 2001;48:251–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bruix J, Sherman M. Management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 2005;42:1208–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Butler LM, Mills PK, Yang RC, Chen MS, Jr. Hepatitis B knowledge and vaccination levels in California Hmong youth: implications for liver cancer prevention strategies. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2005;6:401–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Byrd KM, Wilson DC, Hoyler SS, Peck GL. Advanced presentation of melanoma in African Americans. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004;50:21–4; discussion 142–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ. Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med 2003;348:1625–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cave M, Deaciuc I, Mendez C, Song Z, Joshi-Barve S, Barve S, McClain C. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: predisposing factors and the role of nutrition. J Nutr Biochem 2007;18:184–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chang MH, Chen CJ, Lai MS, Hsu HM, Wu TC, Kong MS, Liang DC, Shau WY, Chen DS. Universal hepatitis B vaccination in Taiwan and the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in children. Taiwan Childhood Hepatoma Study Group. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1855–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chang MH, Chen TH, Hsu HM, Wu TC, Kong MS, Liang DC, Ni YH, Chen CJ, Chen DS. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma by universal vaccination against hepatitis B virus: the effect and problems. Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:7953–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chang SS. Ten largest racial and ethnic health disparities in the United States based on Healthy People 2010 objectives (Letter) 2007:1106–1107.Google Scholar
  15. Chen DS, Hsu NH, Sung JL, Hsu TC, Hsu ST, Kuo YT, Lo KJ, Shih YT. A mass vaccination program in Taiwan against hepatitis B virus infection in infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-carrier mothers. JAMA 1987;257:2597–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen HL, Chang CJ, Kong MS, Huang FC, Lee HC, Lin CC, Liu CC, Lee IH, Wu TC, Wu SF, Ni YH, Hsu HY, Chen DS, Chang MH. Pediatric fulminant hepatic failure in endemic areas of hepatitis B infection: 15 years after universal hepatitis B vaccination. Hepatology 2004;39:58–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen MS Jr. NT, Bastani R, Stewart S, Maxwell AM, Ly M. Liver cancer control interventions for Asian Americans. Proceedings of the Science of Cancer Health Disparities 2007:120–121.Google Scholar
  18. Chen MS, Jr. Cancer health disparities among Asian Americans: what we do and what we need to do. Cancer 2005;104:2895–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cockburn MG, Zadnick J, Deapen D. Developing epidemic of melanoma in the Hispanic population of California. Cancer 2006;106:1162–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cohen C EA, London WT, Block J, Conti M, Block T. Underestimation of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States of American. Journal of Viral Hepatitis 2007:1365–2893.Google Scholar
  21. Cohn-Cedermark G, Mansson-Brahme E, Rutqvist LE, Larsson O, Johansson H, Ringborg U. Trends in mortality from malignant melanoma in Sweden, 1970–1996. Cancer 2000;89:348–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coronado GD, Taylor VM, Tu SP, Yasui Y, Acorda E, Woodall E, Yip MP, Li L, Hislop TG. Correlates of hepatitis B testing among Chinese Americans. J Community Health 2007;32:379–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cress RD, Holly EA. Incidence of cutaneous melanoma among non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, Asians, and blacks: an analysis of California Cancer registry data, 1988–93. Cancer Causes Control 1997;8:246–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crocetti E, Capocaccia R, Casella C, Guzzinati S, Ferretti S, Rosso S, Sacchettini C, Spitale A, Stracci F, Tumino R. Population-based incidence and mortality cancer trends (1986–1997) from the network of Italian cancer registries. Eur J Cancer Prev 2004;13:287–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Daniele B, Bencivenga A, Megna AS, Tinessa V. Alpha-fetoprotein and ultrasonography screening for hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology 2004;127:S108–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Davila JA, Petersena NJ, Nelson HA, El-Serag HB. Geographic variation within the United States in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Clin Epidemiol 2003;56:487–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Vries E, Bray FI, Coebergh JW, Parkin DM. Changing epidemiology of malignant cutaneous melanoma in Europe 1953–1997: rising trends in incidence and mortality but recent stabilizations in western Europe and decreases in Scandinavia. Int J Cancer 2003;107:119–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Demierre MF, Chung C, Miller DR, Geller AC. Early detection of thick melanomas in the United States: beware of the nodular subtype. Arch Dermatol 2005;141:745–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Des Jarlais DC, Perlis T, Arasteh K, Torian LV, Hagan H, Beatrice S, Smith L, Wethers J, Milliken J, Mildvan D, Yancovitz S, Friedman SR. Reductions in hepatitis C virus and HIV infections among injecting drug users in New York City, 1990–2001. Aids 2005;19 Suppl 3:S20–5.Google Scholar
  30. Di Bisceglie AM. Issues in screening and surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology 2004;127:S104–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Di Quinzio ML, Dewar RA, Burge FI, Veugelers PJ. Family physician visits and early recognition of melanoma. Can J Public Health 2005;96:136–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Diepgen TL, Mahler V. The epidemiology of skin cancer. Br J Dermatol 2002;146 Suppl 61:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dilraj A, Strait-Jones J, Nagao M, Cui K, Terrell-Perica S, Effler PV. A statewide hepatitis B vaccination program for school children in Hawaii: vaccination series completion and participation rates over consecutive school years. Public Health Rep 2003;118:127–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Drewnowski A, Specter SE. Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density and energy costs. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:6–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Eide MJ, Weinstock MA. Association of UV index, latitude, and melanoma incidence in nonwhite populations – US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, 1992 to 2001. Arch Dermatol 2005;141:477–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. El-Serag HB, Mason AC. Rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. N Engl J Med 1999;340:745–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. El-Serag HB, Mason AC. Risk factors for the rising rates of primary liver cancer in the United States. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:3227–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. El-Serag HB. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in USA. Hepatol Res 2007;37 Suppl 2:S88–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. El-Serag HB. Hepatocellular carcinoma: an epidemiologic view. J Clin Gastroenterol 2002;35:S72–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ferlay J BF, Pisani P and D.M. Parkin. GLOBOCAN 2002. Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide. IARC Press, 2004.Google Scholar
  41. Franks AL, Berg CJ, Kane MA, Browne BB, Sikes RK, Elsea WR, Burton AH. Hepatitis B virus infection among children born in the United States to Southeast Asian refugees. N Engl J Med 1989;321:1301–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Freeman HP. Patient navigation: a community centered approach to reducing cancer mortality. J Cancer Educ 2006;21:S11–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Geller AC, Swetter SM, Elwood M, Brooks DR, Youl P, Demierrre MF, Aitken J. Risk factors and presentation of thin and thick nodular melanoma in Queensland Australia. Cancer 2009 (in press).Google Scholar
  44. Geller AC, Koh HK, Miller DR, Clapp RW, Mercer MB, Lew RA. Use of health services before the diagnosis of melanoma: implications for early detection and screening. J Gen Intern Med 1992;7:154–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Geller AC, Miller DR, Annas GD, Demierre MF, Gilchrest BA, Koh HK. Melanoma incidence and mortality among US whites, 1969–1999. JAMA 2002;288:1719–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Geller AC, Miller DR, Lew RA, Clapp RW, Wenneker MB, Koh HK. Cutaneous melanoma mortality among the socioeconomically disadvantaged in Massachusetts. Am J Public Health 1996;86:538–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Geller AC, Miller DR, Swetter SM, Demierre MF, Gilchrest BA. A call for the development and implementation of a targeted national melanoma screening program. Arch Dermatol 2006;142:504–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Geller AC, Swetter SM, Brooks K, Demierre MF, Yaroch AL. Screening, early detection, and trends for melanoma: current status (2000–2006) and future directions. J Am Acad Dermatol 2007;57:555–72; quiz 573–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gerbert B, Bronstone A, Maurer T, Berger T, McPhee SJ, Caspers N. The effectiveness of an Internet-based tutorial in improving primary care physicians’ skin cancer triage skills. J Cancer Educ 2002;17:7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Girgis A, Campbell EM, Redman S, Sanson-Fisher RW. Screening for melanoma: a community survey of prevalence and predictors. Med J Aust 1991;154:338–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Harris JM, Salasche SJ, Harris RB. Can Internet-based continuing medical education improve physicians’ skin cancer knowledge and skills? J Gen Intern Med 2001;16:50–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hemmings DE, Johnson DS, Tominaga GT, Wong JH. Cutaneous melanoma in a multiethnic population: is this a different disease? Arch Surg 2004;139:968–72; discussion 972–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hepatitis B vaccination – United States, 1982–2002. MMWR 2002;51:549–52, 563.Google Scholar
  54. Hu S, Ma F, Collado-Mesa F, Kirsner RS. UV radiation, latitude, and melanoma in US Hispanics and blacks. Arch Dermatol 2004;140:819–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hu S, Soza-Vento RM, Parker DF, Kirsner RS. Comparison of stage at diagnosis of melanoma among Hispanic, black, and white patients in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Arch Dermatol 2006;142:704–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hutton DW, Tan D, So SK, Brandeau ML. Cost-effectiveness of screening and vaccinating Asian and Pacific Islander adults for hepatitis B. Ann Intern Med 2007;147:460–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Incidence of acute hepatitis B – United States, 1990–2002. MMWR 2004;52:1252–4.Google Scholar
  58. Investigators TC. A new prognostic system for hepatocellular carcinoma: a retrospective study of 435 patients: the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) investigators. Hepatology 1998;28:751–5.Google Scholar
  59. Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Murray T, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2008. CA Cancer J Clin 2008;58:71–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Murray T, Xu J, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2007. CA Cancer J Clin 2007;57:43–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Keppel KG. (Author replies) Ten largest racial and ethnic health disparities in the United States based on Healthy People 2010 objectives. Am J Epidemiol 2007b:1106–1107.Google Scholar
  62. Keppel KG. Ten largest racial and ethnic health disparities in the United States based on Healthy People 2010 Objectives. Am J Epidemiol 2007a;166:97–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kew MC, Macerollo P. Effect of age on the etiologic role of the hepatitis B virus in hepatocellular carcinoma in blacks. Gastroenterology 1988;94:439–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kim WR, Benson JT, Therneau TM, Torgerson HA, Yawn BP, Melton LJ, 3rd. Changing epidemiology of hepatitis B in a U.S. community. Hepatology 2004;39:811–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kim WR, Brown RS, Jr., Terrault NA, El-Serag H. Burden of liver disease in the United States: summary of a workshop. Hepatology 2002;36:227–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kim WR. The burden of hepatitis C in the United States. Hepatology 2002;36:S30–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kirkpatrick CS, Lee JA, White E. Melanoma risk by age and socio-economic status. Int J Cancer 1990;46:1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kirsner RS, Wilkinson JD, Ma F, Pacheco H, Federman DG. The association of Medicare health care delivery systems with stage at diagnosis and survival for patients with melanoma. Arch Dermatol 2005;141:753–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Klein SJ, Wright LN, Birkhead GS, Mojica BA, Klopf LC, Klein LA, Tanner EL, Feldman IS, Fraley EJ. Promoting HCV treatment completion for prison inmates: New York State’s hepatitis C continuity program. Public Health Rep 2007;122 Suppl 2:83–8.Google Scholar
  70. Koh HK, Geller AC, Miller DR, Caruso A, Gage I, Lew RA. Who is being screened for melanoma/skin cancer? Characteristics of persons screened in Massachusetts. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991;24:271–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Koh HK. Cutaneous melanoma. N Engl J Med 1991;325:171–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kuper H, Adami HO, Trichopoulous D. Infections as a major preventable cause of human cancer. J Int Med 2000;248:171–183.Google Scholar
  73. Leykum LK, El-Serag HB, Cornell J, Papadopoulos KP. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma among veterans with hepatitis C on disease stage, treatment received, and survival. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007;5:508–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Liao Y, Tucker P, Okoro CA, Giles WH, Mokdad AH, Harris VB. REACH 2010 Surveillance for Health Status in Minority Communities – United States, 2001–2002. MMWR Surveill Summ 2004;53:1–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Liaw YF, Sung JJ, Chow WC, Farrell G, Lee CZ, Yuen H, Tanwandee T, Tao QM, Shue K, Keene ON, Dixon JS, Gray DF, Sabbat J. Lamivudine for patients with chronic hepatitis B and advanced liver disease. N Engl J Med 2004;351:1521–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lin SY, Chang ET, So SK. Why we should routinely screen Asian American adults for hepatitis B: A cross-sectional study of Asians in California. Hepatology 2007;46:1034–1040.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Llovet JM, Bru C, Bruix J. Prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: the BCLC staging classification. Semin Liver Dis 1999;19:329–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lok AS, McMahon BJ. Chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2007;45:507–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Margolis HS, Coleman PJ, Brown RE, Mast EE, Sheingold SH, Arevalo JA. Prevention of hepatitis B virus transmission by immunization. An economic analysis of current recommendations. JAMA 1995;274:1201–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Institute of Medicine Extending Medicare Coverage for Preventive and Other Services. National Academy Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  81. Marrero JA, Fontana RJ, Su GL, Conjeevaram HS, Emick DM, Lok AS. NAFLD may be a common underlying liver disease in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. Hepatology 2002;36:1349–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. McGlynn KA, London WT. Epidemiology and natural history of hepatocellular carcinoma. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2005;19:3–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. McGlynn KA, Tsao L, Hsing AW, Devesa SS, Fraumeni JF, Jr. International trends and patterns of primary liver cancer. Int J Cancer 2001;94:290–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mehta SH, Thomas DL, Sulkowski MS, Safaein M, Vlahov D, Strathdee SA. A framework for understanding factors that affect access and utilization of treatment for hepatitis C virus infection among HCV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected injection drug users. Aids 2005;19 Suppl 3:S179–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Miller BA KL, Bernstein et al., eds. Racial/ethnic patterns of cancer in the United States, 1988–1992. In: Institute NC, ed, 1996.Google Scholar
  86. Miller BA, Chu KC, Hankey BF, Ries LA. Cancer incidence and mortality patterns among specific Asian and Pacific Islander populations in the U.S. Cancer Causes Control 2007.Google Scholar
  87. Miller DR, Geller AC, Wyatt SW, Halpern A, Howell JB, Cockerell C, Reilley BA, Bewerse BA, Rigel D, Rosenthal L, Amonette R, Sun T, Grossbart T, Lew RA, Koh HK. Melanoma awareness and self-examination practices: results of a United States survey. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996;34:962–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mokdad AH, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, Bowman BA, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The spread of the obesity epidemic in the United States, 1991–1998. JAMA 1999;282:1519–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Muir AJ, Bornstein JD, Killenberg PG. Peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in blacks and non-Hispanic whites. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2265–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Must A, Spadano J, Coakley EH, Field AE, Colditz G, Dietz WH. The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. JAMA 1999;282:1523–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. National Cancer Institute Fact Book 2006, 2007.Google Scholar
  92. National Center for Health Statistics. In: Health, ed: Government Printing Office, 2002.Google Scholar
  93. Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Caldwell SH. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: summary of an AASLD Single Topic Conference. Hepatology 2003;37:1202–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nguyen TT, Taylor V, Chen MS, Jr., Bastani R, Maxwell AE, McPhee SJ. Hepatitis B awareness, knowledge, and screening among asian americans. J Cancer Educ 2007;22:266–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ni YH, Huang LM, Chang MH, Yen CJ, Lu CY, You SL, Kao JH, Lin YC, Chen HL, Hsu HY, Chen DS. Two decades of universal hepatitis B vaccination in taiwan: impact and implication for future strategies. Gastroenterology 2007;132:1287–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nyamathi AM, Dixon EL, Robbins W, Smith C, Wiley D, Leake B, Longshore D, Gelberg L. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection among homeless adults. J Gen Intern Med 2002;17:134–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Parker SL, Davis KJ, Wingo PA, Ries LA, Heath CW, Jr. Cancer statistics by race and ethnicity. CA Cancer J Clin 1998;48:31–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Estimating the world cancer burden: Globocan 2000. Int J Cancer 2001;94:153–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Parkin DM. Global cancer statistics in the year 2000. Lancet Oncol 2001;2:533–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pennie ML, Soon SL, Risser JB, Veledar E, Culler SD, Chen SC. Melanoma outcomes for Medicare patients: association of stage and survival with detection by a dermatologist vs a nondermatologist. Arch Dermatol 2007;143:488–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Perz JF, Elm JL, Jr., Fiore AE, Huggler JI, Kuhnert WL, Effler PV. Near elimination of hepatitis B virus infections among Hawaii elementary school children after universal infant hepatitis B vaccination. Pediatrics 2006;118:1403–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Poland GA, Jacobson RM. Clinical practice: prevention of hepatitis B with the hepatitis B vaccine. N Engl J Med 2004;351:2832–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Poynard T, Ratziu V, Charlotte F, Goodman Z, McHutchison J, Albrecht J. Rates and risk factors of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis c. J Hepatol 2001;34:730–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pyrsopoulos N, Jeffers L. Hepatitis C in African Americans. J Clin Gastroenterol 2007;41:185–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Reddy KR, Hoofnagle JH, Tong MJ, Lee WM, Pockros P, Heathcote EJ, Albert D, Joh T. Racial differences in responses to therapy with interferon in chronic hepatitis C. Consensus Interferon Study Group. Hepatology 1999;30:787–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Reid AE, Resnick M, Chang Y, Buerstatte N, Weissman JS. Disparity in use of orthotopic liver transplantation among blacks and whites. Liver Transpl 2004;10:834–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Reindollar RW. Hepatitis C and the correctional population. Am J Med 1999;107:100S–103S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Resneck JS, Jr., Isenstein A, Kimball AB. Few Medicaid and uninsured patients are accessing dermatologists. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006;55:1084–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Reyes Ortiz CA, Freeman JL, Kuo YF, Goodwin JS. The influence of marital status on stage at diagnosis and survival of older persons with melanoma. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2007;62:892–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Reyes-Ortiz CA, Goodwin JS, Freeman JL, Kuo YF. Socioeconomic status and survival in older patients with melanoma. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006;54:1758–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rhodes AR, Weinstock MA, Fitzpatrick TB, Mihm MC, Jr., Sober AJ. Risk factors for cutaneous melanoma. A practical method of recognizing predisposed individuals. JAMA 1987;258:3146–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ries LAG EM, Kosary CL, et al. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2002.Google Scholar
  113. Roetzheim RG, Pal N, Tennant C, Voti L, Ayanian JZ, Schwabe A, Krischer JP. Effects of health insurance and race on early detection of cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:1409–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Roetzheim RG, Pal N, van Durme DJ, Wathington D, Ferrante JM, Gonzalez EC, Krischer JP. Increasing supplies of dermatologists and family physicians are associated with earlier stage of melanoma detection. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;43:211–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Roy E, Nonn E, Haley N, Cox J. Hepatitis C meanings and preventive strategies among street-involved young injection drug users in Montreal. Int J Drug Policy 2007;18:397–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Russo D, Purohit V, Foudin L, Salin M. Workshop on Alcohol Use and Health Disparities 2002: a call to arms. Alcohol 2004;32:37–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Rustgi VK. The epidemiology of hepatitis C infection in the United States. J Gastroenterol 2007;42:513–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Santmyire BR, Feldman SR, Fleischer AB, Jr. Lifestyle high-risk behaviors and demographics may predict the level of participation in sun-protection behaviors and skin cancer primary prevention in the United States: results of the 1998 National Health Interview Survey. Cancer 2001;92:1315–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Saraiya M, Hall HI, Thompson T, Hartman A, Glanz K, Rimer B, Rose D. Skin cancer screening among U.S. adults from 1992, 1998, and 2000 National Health Interview Surveys. Prev Med 2004;39:308–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Schmidt LA, Ye Y, Greenfield TK, Bond J. Ethnic disparities in clinical severity and services for alcohol problems: results from the National Alcohol Survey. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2007;31:48–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Screening for hepatitis B virus infection among refugees arriving in the United States, 1979–1991. MMWR 1991;40:784–6.Google Scholar
  122. Severi G, Giles GG, Robertson C, Boyle P, Autier P. Mortality from cutaneous melanoma: evidence for contrasting trends between populations. Br J Cancer 2000;82:1887–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Singh GK, Hoyert DL. Social epidemiology of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis mortality in the United States, 1935–1997: trends and differentials by ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and alcohol consumption. Hum Biol 2000;72:801–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Stitzenberg KB, Thomas NE, Dalton K, Brier SE, Ollila DW, Berwick M, Mattingly D, Millikan RC. Distance to diagnosing provider as a measure of access for patients with melanoma. Arch Dermatol 2007;143:991–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Strader DB, Wright T, Thomas DL, Seeff LB. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C. Hepatology 2004;39:1147–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Swetter SM, Miller DR, Layton CJ, Brooks KR, Geller AC. Melanoma in Middle-Aged and Older Men: a multi-institutional survey study of factors related to tumor thickness. Archives of Dermatology 2009 (in press).Google Scholar
  127. To SE. Alcohol dependence patterns and their impact on New York City. MedGenMed 2007;9:23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Tremolda F, Benevegnu L, Drago C, Casarin C, Cechetto A, Realdi G, Ruol A. Early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis by alphafetoprotein, ultrasound and fine-needle biopsy. Hepatogastroenterology 1989;36:519–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Report on Carcinogens. 11 ed, 2004.Google Scholar
  130. US Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Williams Wilkins, 1996.Google Scholar
  131. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for skin cancer: recommendations and rationale. Am J Prev Med 2001;20:44–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Velazquez RF RM, Navascues CA et al. Prospective analysis of risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with liver cirrhosis. Hepatology 2003:520–527.Google Scholar
  133. Wasley A, Alter MJ. Epidemiology of hepatitis C: geographic differences and temporal trends. Semin Liver Dis 2000;20:1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Wasley A, Miller JT, Finelli L. Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis – United States, 2005. MMWR Surveill Summ 2007;56:1–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Wong JB, McQuillan GM, McHutchison JG, Poynard T. Estimating future hepatitis C morbidity, mortality, and costs in the United States. Am J Public Health 2000;90:1562–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Wright TL. Antiviral therapy and primary and secondary prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatol Res 2007;37 Suppl 2:S294–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Yang HI, Lu SN, Liaw YF, You SL, Sun CA, Wang LY, Hsiao CK, Chen PJ, Chen DS, Chen CJ. Hepatitis B e antigen and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med 2002;347:168–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Yu MC, Yuan JM. Environmental factors and risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology 2004;127:S72–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Zamolo G, Gruber F, Jonjic A, Cabrijan L, Palle M, Grubisic-Greblo H. A 20-year epidemiological study of cutaneous melanoma in the Rijeka district of Croatia. Clin Exp Dermatol 2000;25:77–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Zhang BH, Yang BH, Tang ZY. Randomized controlled trial of screening for hepatocellular carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2004;130:417–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Zhou F, Euler GL, McPhee SJ, Nguyen T, Lam T, Wong C, Mock J. Economic analysis of promotion of hepatitis B vaccinations among Vietnamese-American children and adolescents in Houston and Dallas. Pediatrics 2003;111:1289–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher A. Aoki
    • 1
  • Alan Geller
    • 2
  • Moon S. Chen
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaDavis
  2. 2.Division of Public Health PracticeHarvard School of Public HealthBoston
  3. 3.Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaDavis

Personalised recommendations