Programmed Frameshifting in Budding Yeast
The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, provided two of the earliest analyzed examples of programmed translational frameshifting. The Ty family of retrotransposons uses +1 programmed frameshifting in the expression of their pol homologue, resulting in the production of a gag–pol fusion protein. The pol gene product encodes the enzymatic activities necessary for reverse transcription of the Ty mRNA. Similarly, the endogenous L-A virus uses −1 frameshifting in expression of the protein responsible for catalyzing replication of L-A, a double-stranded RNA virus. Subsequently, three chromosomal genes were shown to use +1 frameshifting in their expression: ABP140, EST3, and OAZ1. Their frameshifting strongly resembles the Ty event. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that many genes may employ −1 frameshifting although the function of the frameshift in those genes remains controversial. This review will discuss the mechanisms of these frameshift events, the evolution of programmed frameshifting in budding yeast, and the lessons to be learned about programmed alternative decoding events based on frameshifting in yeast.
KeywordsSite Codon Primary Translation Product Frameshift Site Mammalian Cell Extract Frameshift Signal
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