Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  • Moses Joloba
  • Freddie Bwanga


Over 95% of tuberculosis (TB) cases and deaths among adults occur in developing countries. The emergence, management of cases, and spread of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the biggest challenges faced by national tuberculosis control programs. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), defined as resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most potent anti-TB drugs, is increasing. MDR-TB is difficult and expensive to treat. Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), defined as MDR-TB with additional resistance to a fluoroquinolone and one or more of the injectable anti-TB drugs, has been reported in many countries. Due to lack of diagnostic capacity, particularly in developing countries, the burden of MDR-TB and XDR-TB is not well known. Detection of drug-resistant TB is hindered by the difficulty and length of time required for its diagnosis while using conventional indirect drug susceptibility testing. Development and implementation of rapid methods for the diagnosis of drug-resistant TB are essential to long-term effective control of TB. Presented in this chapter are the terminology used in TB drug resistance, anti-TB drug groups, development and mechanism of drug resistance, and the conventional and new rapid susceptibility testing techniques. Finally, the treatment, control, and surveillance for TB drug resistance are introduced.


Drug Susceptibility Testing rpoB Gene Alamar Blue Assay katG Gene Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Thanks to Jessica Restucci, APUA executive assistant and Irma Stefani, APUA administrative assistant for their valuable assistance and support throughout the editing and proof-reading of selected chapters.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of MedicineMakerere University Medical SchoolKampalaUganda

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