Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Latin America and the Caribbean

  • Manuel Guzmán-Blanco
  • Raul E. Istúriz


Antimicrobial resistance in Latin America and the Caribbean is widespread and is a limitation for proper treatment of both community- and hospital-acquired infections. Resistance to respiratory pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections is prevalent throughout the region in ambulatory patients with infections. High rates of resistant to antibiotics used in hospital-acquired infections is a growing threat, including MRSA, ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii.


Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Valentine Leukocidin Sentry Antimicrobial Surveillance Program Bacterial Infectious Disease Nosocomial Isolate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Alvarez, E., M. Espino and R. Contreras (2006). “Determinacion de la susceptibilidad de Escherichia coli en aislamientos del tracto urinario por el sistema DIRAMIC.” Rev Panam infect 8: 10–15.Google Scholar
  2. Andrade, S. S., H. S. Sader, R. N. Jones, A. S. Pereira, A. C. C. Pignatari and A. C. Gales (2006). “Increased resistance to first-line agents among bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infections in Latin America: time for local guidelines?” Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 101: 741–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bratu, S., D. Landman, R. Haag, R. Recco, A. Eramo, M. Alam and J. Quale (2005). “Rapid spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in New York City: a new threat to our antibiotic armamentarium.” Arch Intern Med 165(12): 1430–1435.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Casellas, J. and API Comité Resistencia Antibacterianos (2006). “Resultados Encuesta Número 7.” Revista Panamericana de Infectología 8(48–51).Google Scholar
  5. Casellas, J., E. Nanini, M. Radice and E. Cocconi (2005). “Estudio de un brote debido a aislados de Klebsiella pneumoniae prodcutoras de betalactamasas de espectro expandido en un centro asistencial de Rosario, Argentina.” Rev Pan Infect 7: 21–27.Google Scholar
  6. Casellas, J. M. and G. M. Goldberg (1989). “Incidence of strains producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases in Argentina.” Infection 17(6): 434–436.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Castanheira, M., A. Gales, A. Pignatari, R. Jones and H. Sader (2006). “Changing antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae from Brazil: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1998–2004).” Microbial Drug Resist 12(2): 91–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. CDC (2003). “Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections among competitive sports participants – Colorado, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Los Angeles County, 2000–2003.” MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 52(33): 793–795.Google Scholar
  9. Cherian, B., N. Singh, W. Charles and P. Prabhakar (1999). “Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing salmonella enteritidis in Trinidad and Tobago.” Emerg Infect Dis 5(1): 181–182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cruz, C., J. Moreno, A. Renzoni, M. Hidalgo, J. Reyes, J. Schrenzel, D. Lew, E. Castaneda and C. A. Arias (2005). “Tracking methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones in Colombian hospitals over 7 years (1996–2003): emergence of a new dominant clone.” Int J Antimicrob Agents 26(6): 457–462.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cuellar-Rodríguez, J., A. Galindo-Fraga, V. Guevara, z. C. Pérez-Jiméne, L. Espinosa-Aguilar, A. Rolón, A. Hernández-Cruz, E. López-Jácome, M. Bobadilla-del-Valle, A. Martínez-Gamboa, A. Ponce-de-León and S.-O. J. (2007). “Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Mexico City.” Emerg Infect Dis 13(5): 798–799.Google Scholar
  12. Da Silva Coimbra, M. V., L. A. Teixeira, R. L. Ramos, S. C. Predari, L. Castello, A. Famiglietti, C. Vay, L. Klan and A. M. Figueiredo (2000). “Spread of the Brazilian epidemic clone of a multiresistant MRSA in two cities in Argentina.” J Med Microbiol 49(2): 187–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Estrada-García, T., P.-G. Leova, J. F. Cerna, R. F. Velázquez, T. J. Ochoa, J. Torres and H. L. DuPont. (2005). “Drug-resistant diarrheogenic Escherichia coli, Mexico.” Emerg Infect Dis 11(8): 1306–1308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Fritsche, T. R., H. S. Sader, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh and R. N. Jones (2005). “Emerging metallo-β-lactamase-mediated resistances: a summary report from the worldwide SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.” Clin Infect Dis 41(s4): S276–S278.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Gomes, A. R., I. S. Sanches, M. Aires de Sousa, E. Castaneda and H. de Lencastre (2001). “Molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Colombian hospitals: dominance of a single unique multidrug-resistant clone.” Microb Drug Resist 7(1): 23–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gonzalez-Vertiz, A., D. Alcantar-Curiel, M. Cuauhtli, C. Daza, C. Gayosso, G. Solache, C. Horta, F. Mejia, J. I. Santos and C. Alpuche-Aranda (2001). “Multiresistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae causing an outbreak of nosocomial bloodstream Infection.” Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 22(11): 723–725.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gutmann, L., B. Ferre, F. W. Goldstein, N. Rizk, E. Pinto-Schuster, J. F. Acar and E. Collatz (1989). “SHV-5, a novel SHV-type beta-lactamase that hydrolyzes broad-spectrum cephalosporins and monobactams.” Antimicrob Agents Chemother 33(6): 951–956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Guzmán-Blanco, M., J. Casellas and H. Sader (2000). “Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents in Latin America. The giant is awakening.” Infect Dis Clin North Am 14(1): 67–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hortal, M., R. Ruvinsky, A. Rossi, C. I. Agudelo, E. Castañeda, C. Brandileone, T. Camou, R. Palacio, G. Echaniz and J. L. D. Fabio (2000). “Impact of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pneumonias of Latin American children.” Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan Am J Public Health 8(3): 185–195.Google Scholar
  20. Ibarra, J. O. and D. E. Alvarado (2007). “Antimicrobial resistance of clinical and environmental strains of Vibrio cholerae isolated in Lima-Peru during epidemics of 1991 and 1998.” Braz J Infect Dis 11: 100–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kazakova, S. V., J. C. Hageman, M. Matava, A. Srinivasan, L. Phelan, B. Garfinkel, T. Boo, S. McAllister, J. Anderson, B. Jensen, D. Dodson, D. Lonsway, L. K. McDougal, M. Arduino, V. J. Fraser, G. Killgore, F. C. Tenover, S. Cody and D. B. Jernigan (2005). “A clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among professional football players.” N Engl J Med 352(5): 468–475.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kertesz, D., J. Di Fabio, M. Brandileone, E. Castaneda, G. Echaniz-Aviles, I. Heitmann, A. Homma, M. Hortal, M. Lovgren, R. Ruvinsky, J. Talbot, J. Weekes and J. Spika (1998). “Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection in Latin American Children: results of the Pan American Health Organization Surveillance Study.” Clin Infect Dis 26(6): 1355–1361.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Lovgren, M., J. A. Talbot, M. C. Brandileone, S. T. Casagrande, C. I. Agudelo, E. Castaneda, M. Regueira, A. Corso, I. Heitmann, A. Maldonado, G. Echaniz-Aviles, A. Soto-Nogueron, M. Hortal, T. Camou, J.-M. Gabastou, J. L. D. Fabio and the SIREVA Study Group (2007). “Evolution of an international external quality assurance model to support laboratory investigation of Streptococcus pneumoniae, developed for the SIREVA Project in Latin America, from 1993 to 2005.” J Clin Microbiol 45(10): 3184–3190.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ma, X. X., A. Galiana, W. Pedreira, M. Mowszowicz, I. Christophersen, S. Machiavello, L. Lope, S. Benaderet, F. Buela, W. Vincentino, M. Albini, O. Bertaux, I. Constenla, H. Bagnulo, L. Liosa, T. Ito and K. Hiramatsu (2005). “Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Uruguay.” Emerg Infect Dis 11(6): 973–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Melo, M., M. Silva-Carvalho, R. Ferreira, L. Coelho, R. Souza, C. Gobbi, R. Rozenbaum, C. Solari, B. Ferreira-Carvalho and A. Figueiredo (2004). “Detection and molecular characterization of a gentamicin-susceptible, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone in Rio de Janeiro that resembles the New York/Japanese clone.” J Hosp Infect 58(4): 276–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Mendes, C., M. E. Marin, F. Quiñones, J. Sifuentes-Osornio, C. Cuilty Siller, M. Castanheira, C. M. Zoccoli, H. López, A. Súcari, F. Rossi, G. Barriga Angulo, A. J. A. Segura, C. Starling, I. Mimica and D. Felmingham (2003). “Antibacterial resistance of community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens recovered from patients in Latin America: results from the PROTEKT surveillance study (1999–2000).” Braz J Infect Dis 7: 44–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Mendes, R. E., M. Castanheira, P. Garcia, M. Guzman, M. A. Toleman, T. R. Walsh and R. N. Jones (2004). “First isolation of blaVIM-2 in Latin America: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.” Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48(4): 1433–1434.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Moran, G. J., A. Krishnadasan, R. J. Gorwitz, G. E. Fosheim, L. K. McDougal, R. B. Carey, D. A. Talan and EMERGEncy ID Net Study Group (2006). “Methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections among patients in the emergency department.” N Engl J Med 355(7): 666–674.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Moszkowicz, M., W. Pedreira, A. Galiana and K. Hiramatsu (2004). “Efficacy of co-trimoxazole high dose short course in community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) outbreak in Uruguay jails 2003.” Int J Infect Dis 8(suppl): 185.Google Scholar
  30. Otman, J., E. D. Cavassin, M. E. Perugini and M. C. Vidotto (2002). “An outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella Species in a neonatal intensive care unit in Brazil.” Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 23(1): 8–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. PAHO (2006). Informe anual Red de Monitoreo/Vigilancia resistencia a los Antibióticos. Publicación Organización panamericana de la salud. . Washington, DC, Pan American Health Organization.Google Scholar
  32. PROVENRA (1988–2006). Programa Venezolano de Vigilancia de Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos, Asociación Civil Programa Venezolano de Vigilancia de la Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos en Venezuela- 2006.Google Scholar
  33. Puig, Y., M. Espino, T. Leyva, D. Martino, P. Mendez, P. Soto and Y. Ferrer (2007). “Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana en cepas de salmonella spp. de origen clinico y alimentario.” Rev Panam Infect 9(3): 12–16.Google Scholar
  34. Quinteros, M., M. Radice, N. Gardella, M. M. Rodriguez, N. Costa, D. Korbenfeld, E. Couto and G. Gutkind (2003). “Extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamases in enterobacteriaceae in buenos aires, Argentina, Public Hospitals.” Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47(9): 2864–2867.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Ribeiro, A., C. Dias, M. C. Silva-Carvalho, L. Berquo, F. A. Ferreira, R. N. S. Santos, B. T. Ferreira-Carvalho and A. M. Figueiredo (2005). “First report of infection with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in South America.” J Clin Microbiol 43(4): 1985–1988.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Sader, H. S., A. C. Pignatari, R. J. Hollis and R. N. Jones (1994). “Evaluation of interhospital spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Sao Paulo, Brazil, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA.” Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 15(5): 320–323.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sader, H. and R. Jones (2004). “Gales A, Pignatary A and SENTRY participants group latin America: SENTRY antimicrobial surveilance program report. Latin America and brazilian results from 1997 through 2001.” Braz j Infect Dis 8:25–79.Google Scholar
  38. Sanchez, J., J. Feris-Iglesias, J. Fernandez, E. Perez-Then, S. Ramirez, G. Ortega and L. Jimenez (2007). “Aislamiento de Klebsiella pneumnoniae productora de betalacatamsas de espectro extendido en recién nacidos en el hospital Roberto Reid Cabral de Santo Domingo, Republica Dominicana.” Rev Panam Infect 7(4): 15–20.Google Scholar
  39. Sola, C., G. Gribaudo, A. Vindel, L. Patrito and J. L. Bocco (2002). “Identification of a novel methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemic clone in Cordoba, Argentina involved in nosocomial infections.” J Clin Microb 40:1427–1435.Google Scholar
  40. Turner, P. J. (2005). “Extended-spectrum β-lactamases.” Clin Infect Dis 41(s4): S273–S275.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Villegas, M. V., A. Correa, F. Perez, T. Zuluaga, M. Radice, G. Gutkind, J. M. Casellas, J. Ayala, K. Lolans, J. P. Quinn and the Colombian Nosocomial Resistance Study Group (2004). “CTX-M-12 {beta}-lactamase in a Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate in Colombia.” Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48(2): 629–631.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Villegas, M. V., J. N. Kattan, A. Correa, K. Lolans, A. M. Guzman, N. Woodford, D. Livermore, J. P. Quinn and the Colombian Nosocomial Bacterial Resistance Study Group (2007). “Dissemination of Acinetobacter baumannii clones with OXA-23 carbapenemase in Colombian Hospitals.” Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51(6): 2001–2004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Villegas, M. V., K. Lolans, A. Correa, C. Jose Suarez, J. Lopez, M. Vallejo, J. Quinn and the Colombian Nosocomial Resistance Study Group (2006). “First detection of the plasmid-mediated class A carbapenemase KPC-2 in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from South America.” Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50(8): 2880–2882.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Whitney, C., M. Farley, J. Hadler, L. Harrison, N. Bennet, R. Lynfield, A. Reingold, D. Jackson, R. Faclan, J. Jorgensen and A. Schuchat (2003). “Decline in invasive pneumococcal diseases after the introduction of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccine.” N Eng J Med 348:1736–1746.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineHospital Vargas de Caracas, Infectious Diseases, Centro Médico de CaracasSan BernardinoVenezuela
  2. 2.Department of MedicineInfectious Diseases, Centro Médico de CaracasSan BernardinoVenezuela
  3. 3.Centro Medico Docente La TrinidadCaracasVenezuela

Personalised recommendations