Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Asia



Antimicrobial resistance has become a major health problem worldwide, but marked variations in resistance profiles of bacterial pathogens are found among countries and in different patient settings, especially in Asia. These differences represent the effects of appropriate and inappropriate use of antibiotics in humans and animals. In this chapter, bacterial as well as fungal drug resistance is discussed.


Resistance Rate Carbapenem Resistance Clonal Dissemination ESBL Type Penicillin Minimum Inhibitory Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Bala M., Jain R.K., and Ray K. 2008. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of resistance phenotypes of Neisseria gonorrheae in India. Sex. Transm. Dis. 35:588–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beekmann S.E., Heilmann K.P., Richter S.S., García-de-Lomas J., and Doern G.V. 2005. The GRASP Study Group. Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci in 2002–2003. Results of the multinational GRASP Surveillance Program. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 25:148–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Biedenbach D.J., Bell J.M., Sader H.S., Fritsche T.R., Jones R.N., and Turnidge J.D. 2007. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-positive bacterial isolates from the Asia–Pacific region and an in vitro evaluation of the bactericidal activity of daptomycin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin: a SENTRY Program Report (2003–2004). Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 30:143–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boucher H.W., and Corey G.R. 2008. Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 46 Suppl 5:S344–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyle-Vavra S., Ereshefsky B., Wang C.C., and Daum R.S. 2005. Successful multiresistant community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus lineage from Taipei, Taiwan, that carries either the novel Staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) type VT or SCCmec type IV. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:4719–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chau T.T., Campbell J.I., Galindo C.M., Van Minh Hoang N., Diep T.S., Nga T.T., Van Vinh Chau N., Tuan P.Q., Page A.L., Ochiai R.L., Schultsz C., Wain J., Bhutta Z.A., Parry C.M., Bhattacharya S.K., Dutta S., Agtini M., Dong B., Honghui Y., Anh D.D., Canh do G., Naheed A., Albert M.J., Phetsouvanh R., Newton P.N., Basnyat B., Arjyal A., La T.T., Rang N.N., Phuong le T., Van Be Bay P., von Seidlein L., Dougan G., Clemens J.D., Vinh H., Hien T.T., Chinh N.T., Acosta C.J., Farrar J., and Dolecek C. 2007. Antimicrobial drug resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi in Asia and molecular mechanism of reduced susceptibility to the fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:4315–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chiu C.H., Wu T.L., Su L.H., Chu C., Chia J.H., Kuo A.J., Chien M.S., and Lin T.Y. 2002. The emergence in Taiwan of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype choleraesuis. N. Engl. J. Med. 346:413–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chiu C.H., Su L.H., and Chu C. 2004a Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis: epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical disease, and treatment. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 17:311–22Google Scholar
  9. Chiu C.H., Wu T.L., Su L.H., Liu J.W., and Chu C. 2004b. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis, Taiwan, 2000–2003. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:1674–6.Google Scholar
  10. Choi S.H., Woo J.H., Lee J.E., Park S.J., Choo E.J., Kwak Y.G., Kim M.N., Choi M.S., Lee N.Y., Lee B.K., Kim N.J., Jeong J.Y., Ryu J., and Kim Y.S. 2005. Increasing incidence of quinolone resistance in human non-typhoid Salmonella enterica isolates in Korea and mechanisms involved in quinolone resistance. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 56:1111–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Chong Y., and Lee K. 2000. Present situation of antimicrobial resistance in Korea. J. Infect. Chemother. 6:189–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cui S., Li J., Sun Z., Hu C., Jin S., Guo Y., Ran L., and Ma Y. 2008. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, China. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:493–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Dijkshoorn L., Nemec A., and Seifert H. 2007. An increasing threat in hospitals: multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 5:939–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Felmingham D., White A.R., Jacobs M.R., Appelbaum P.C., Poupard J., Miller L.A., and Grüneberg R.N. 2005. The Alexander Project: the benefits from a decade of surveillance. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 56 Suppl 2:ii3–ii21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Fujita N., Yoshimura M., Komori T., Tanimoto K., and Ike Y. 1998. First report of the isolation of high-level vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from a patient in Japan. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:2150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gales A.C., Jones R.N., Turnidge J., Rennie R., and Ramphal R. 2001. Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates: occurrence rates, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and molecular typing in the global SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997–1999. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15;32 Suppl 2:S146–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hadadi A., Rasoulinejad M., Maleki Z., Yonesian M., Shirani A., and Kourorian Z. 2008. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Gram-negative bacilli of nosocomial origin at 2 university hospitals in Iran. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect Dis. 60:301–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hawkey P.M. 2008. Prevalence and clonality of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Asia. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Suppl 1:159–65..Google Scholar
  19. Hirakata Y., Matsuda J., Miyazaki Y., Kamihira S., Kawakami S., Miyazawa Y., Ono Y., Nakazaki N., Hirata Y., Inoue M., Turnidge J.D., Bell J.M., Jones R.N., and Kohno S.; SENTRY Asia-Pacific Participants. 2005. Regional variation in the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing clinical isolates in the Asia-Pacific region (SENTRY 1998–2002). Diagn. Microbiol. Infect .Dis. 52:323–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hiramatsu K., Aritaka N., Hanaki H., Kawasaki S., Hosoda Y., Hori S., Fukuchi Y., and Kobayashi I. 1997. Dissemination in Japanese hospitals of strains of Staphylococcus aureus heterogeneously resistant to vancomycin. Lancet. 350:1670–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ho P.L., Yam W.C., Cheung T.K., Ng W.W., Que T.L., Tsang D.N., Ng T.K., and Seto W.H. 2001. Fluoroquinolone resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae in Hong Kong linked to the Spanish 23F clone. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:906–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ho P.L., Chow K.H., Mak G.C., Tsang K.W., Lau Y.L., Ho A.Y., Lai E.L., and Chiu S.S. 2004. Decreased levofloxacin susceptibility in Haemophilus influenzae in children, Hong Kong. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:1960–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ho P.L., Cheung C., Mak G.C., Tse C.W., Ng T.K., Cheung C.H., Que T.L., Lam R., Lai R.W., Yung R.W., and Yuen K.Y. 2007. Molecular epidemiology and household transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Hong Kong. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 57:145–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hoban D., and Felmingham D. 2002. The PROTEKT surveillance study: antimicrobial susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis from community-acquired respiratory tract infections J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 50 Suppl S1:49–59.Google Scholar
  25. Hsu L.Y., Koh Y.L., Chlebicka N.L., Tan T.Y., Krishnan P., Lin R.T., Tee N., Barkham T., and Koh T.H. 2006. Establishment of ST30 as the predominant clonal type among community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in Singapore. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:1090–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hsueh P.R., Liu Y.C., Shyr J.M., Wu T.L., Yan J.J., Wu J.J., Leu HS, Chuang Y.C., Lau Y. J, and Luh K.T. 2000. Multicenter surveillance of antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in Taiwan during the 1998–1999 respiratory season. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:1342–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hsueh P.R., Liu C.Y., and Luh K.T. 2002. Current status of antimicrobial resistance in Taiwan. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:132–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hsueh P.R., Teng L.J., Lee C.M., Huang W.K., Wu T.L., Wan J.H., Yang D., Shyr J.M., Chuang Y.C., Yan J.J., Lu J.J., Wu J.J., Ko W.C., Chang F.Y., Yang Y.C., Lau Y.J., Liu Y.C., Leu H.S., Liu C.Y., and Luh K.T.; SMART Program 2001. Data. 2003. Telithromycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes: SMART Program 2001 Data. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:2152–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hsueh P.R., Teng L.J., Tseng S.P., Chang C.F., Wan J.H., Yan J.J., Lee C.M., Chuang Y.C., Huang W.K., Yang D., Shyr J.M., Yu K.W., Wang L.S., Lu J.J., Ko W.C., Wu J.J., Chang F.Y., Yang Y.C., Lau Y.J., Liu Y.C., Liu C.Y., Ho S.W., and Luh K.T. 2004a. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Choleraesuis from pigs to humans, Taiwan. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:60–8.Google Scholar
  30. Hsueh P.R., Teng L.J., Chen W.H., Pan H.J., Chen M.L., Chang S.C., Luh K.T., and Lin F.Y. 2004b. Increasing prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing nosocomial infections at a university hospital in Taiwan from 1986 to 2001. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:1361–4.Google Scholar
  31. Hsueh P.R., Shyr J.M., and Wu J.J. 2005a. Decreased erythromycin use after antimicrobial reimbursement restriction for undocumented bacterial upper respiratory tract infections significantly reduced erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes in Taiwan. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:903–5.Google Scholar
  32. Hsueh P.R., Tseng S.P., Teng L.J., and Ho S.W. 2005b High prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Northern Taiwan. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:188–92.Google Scholar
  33. Hsueh P.R., Lau Y.J., Chuang Y.C., Wan J.H., Huang W.K., Shyr J.M., Yan J.J., Yu K.W., Wu J.J., Ko W.C., Yang Y.C., Liu Y.C., Teng L.J., Liu C.Y., and Luh K.T. 2005c. Antifungal susceptibilities of clinical isolates of Candida species, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus species from Taiwan: surveillance of multicenter antimicrobial resistance in Taiwan program data from 2003. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:512–7.Google Scholar
  34. Hsueh P.R., Liu Y.C., So J., Liu C.Y., Yang P.C., and Luh K.T. 2006. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Taiwan. J. Infect. 52:77–85CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Ikebe T., Hirasawa K., Suzuki R., Isobe J., Tanaka D., Katsukawa C., Kawahara R., Tomita M., Ogata K., Endoh M., Okuno R., and Watanabe H. 2005. Antimicrobial susceptibility survey of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated in Japan from patients with severe invasive group A streptococcal infections. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:788–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Invasive Bacterial Infections Surveillance (IBIS) Group of the International Clinical Epidemiology Network. 2002. Are Haemophilus influenzae infections a significant problem in India? A prospective study and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:949–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Inoue M., Lee N.Y., Hong S.W., Lee K., and Felmingham D. 2004. PROTEKT 1999–2000: a multicentre study of the antibiotic susceptibility of respiratory tract pathogens in Hong Kong, Japan and South Korea. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 23:44–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ishii Y., Yamaguchi K., and ; Meropenem Surveillance Group. 2008. Evaluation of the susceptibility trends to meropenem in a nationwide collection of clinical isolates in Japan: a longitudinal analysis from 2002 to 2006. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 61:346–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Izumiya H., Mori K., Kurazono T., Yamaguchi M., Higashide M., Konishi N., Kai A., Morita K., Terajima J., and Watanabe H. 2005. Characterization of isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium displaying high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in Japan. J Clin Microbiol. 43:5074–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Jabeen K., Khan E., and Hasan R. 2006. Emergence of quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Pakistan. Int. J. STD. AIDS 17:30–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Jasir A., Tanna A., Noorani A., Mirsalehian A., Efstratiou A., and Schalen C. 2000. High rate of tetracycline resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes in Iran: an epidemiological study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:2103–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Jones R.N., Kirby J.T., Beach M.L., Biedenbach D.J., and Pfaller M.A. 2002. Geographic variations in activity of broad-spectrum beta-lactams against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: summary of the worldwide SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1997–2000). Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 43:239–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kim E.S., Song J.S., Lee H.J., Choe P.G., Park K.H., Cho J.H., Park W.B., Kim S.H., Bang J.H., Kim D.M., Park K.U., Shin S., Lee M.S., Choi H.J., Kim N.J., Kim E.C., Oh M.D., Kim H.B., and Choe K.W. 2007a. A survey of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Korea. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 60:1108–14.Google Scholar
  44. Kim H.B., Jang H.C., Nam H.J., Lee Y.S., Kim B.S., Park W.B., Lee K.D., Choi Y.J., Park S.W., Oh M.D., Kim E.C., and Choe K.W. 2004. In vitro activities of 28 antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from tertiary-care hospitals in Korea: a nationwide survey. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:1124–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kim I.S., Ki C.S., Kim S., Oh W.S., Peck K.R., Song J.H., Lee K., and Lee N.Y. 2007b. Diversity of ampicillin resistance genes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated in Korea. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:453–60.Google Scholar
  46. Kim S., and Lee N.Y. 2004. Epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of group A streptococci isolated from healthy schoolchildren in Korea. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 54:447–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kim M.N., Pai C.H., Woo J.H., Ryu J.S., and Hiramatsu K. 2000. Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in Korea. J Clin Microbiol. 38:3879–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kimura S., Alba J., Shiroto K., Sano R., Niki Y., Maesaki S., Akizawa K., Kaku M., Watanuki Y., Ishii Y., and Yamaguchi K. 2005. Clonal diversity of metallo-beta-lactamase-possessing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in geographically diverse regions of Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:458–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kulwichit W., Chatsuwan T., Unhasuta C., Pulsrikarn C., Bangtrakulnonth A., and Chongthaleong A. 2007. Drug-resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteremia, Thailand. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:501–2CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kuo L.C., Yu C.J., Kuo M.L., Chen W.N., Chang C.K., Lin H.I., Chen C.C., Lu M.C., Lin C.H., Hsieh W.F., Chen L.W., Chou Y., Huang M.S., Lee C.H., Chen S.C., Thai S.L., Chen P.C., Chen C.H., Tseng C.C., Chen Y.S., Hsiue T.R., and Hsueh P.R. 2008. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates from respiratory care wards in Taiwan: a horizontal surveillance study. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 31:420–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Leclercq R. 2002. Mechanisms of resistance to macrolides and lincosamides: nature of the resistance elements and their clinical implications. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:482–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Lee K., Yong D., Yum J.H., Lim Y.S., Kim H.S., Lee B.K., and Chong Y. 2004. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhi in Korea. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:4130–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lee K., Yum J.H., Yong D., Lee H.M., Kim H.D., Docquier J.D., Rossolini G.M., and Chong Y. 2005. Novel acquired metallo-beta-lactamase gene, bla(SIM-1), in a class 1 integron from Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates from Korea. Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 49:4485–4491.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lu J.J., Perng C.L., Ho M.F., Chiueh T.S., and Lee W.H. 2001. High prevalence of vanB2 vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium in Taiwan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:2140–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Luh K.T., Hsueh P.R., Teng L.J., Pan H.J., Chen Y.C., Lu J.J., Wu J.J., and Ho S.W. 2000. Quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance among gram-positive bacteria in Taiwan. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:3374–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Maragakis L.L., and Perl T.M. 2008. Acinetobacter baumannii: epidemiology, antimicrobial resistance, and treatment options. Clin. Infect. Dis. 46:1254–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Matsumoto T. 2008. Trends of sexually transmitted diseases and antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 31 Suppl 1:S35–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mondal R., and Jain A. 2007. Extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, India. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:1429–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Morris S.K., Moss W.J., and Halsey N. 2008. Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine use and effectiveness. Lancet Infect Dis. Jul;8(7):435–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nakae M., Murai T., Kaneko Y., and Mitsuhashi S. 1977. Drug resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes isolated in Japan. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 12:427–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Paterson D.L., and Bonomo R.A. 2005. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: a clinical update Clin Microbiol Rev. Oct;18(4):657–86.Google Scholar
  62. Parry C.M., Hien T.T., Dougan G., White N.J., and Farrar J.J. 2002. Typhoid fever. N. Engl. J. Med. 347:1770–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Pfaller M.A., Diekema D.J., Gibbs D.L., Newell V.A., Meis J.F., Gould I.M., Fu W., Colombo A.L., and Rodriguez-Noriega E.; Global Antifungal Surveillance Study. 2007. Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance study, 1997 to 2005: an 8.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida species and other yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion testing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:1735–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Prasad R. 2005. Current MDR status. Indian. J. Tuberc. 52:121–31.Google Scholar
  65. Ray K., Bala M., Kumari S., and Narain J.P. 2005. Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in selected World Health Organization Southeast Asia Region countries: an overview. Sex. Transm. Dis. 32:178–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Reinert R.R., Low D.E., Rossi F., Zhang X., Wattal C., and Dowzicky M.J. 2007. Antimicrobial susceptibility among organisms from the Asia/Pacific Rim, Europe and Latin and North America collected as part of TEST and the in vitro activity of tigecycline. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 60:1018–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Ruan S.Y., Chu C.C., and Hsueh P.R. 2008. In vitro susceptibilities of invasive isolates of Candida species: rapid increase in rates of fluconazole susceptible-dose dependent Candida glabrata isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:2919–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Sanbongi Y., Suzuki T., Osaki Y., Senju N., Ida T., and Ubukata K. 2006. Molecular evolution of beta-lactam-resistant Haemophilus influenzae: 9-year surveillance of penicillin-binding protein 3 mutations in isolates from Japan. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:2487–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Shah N.S., Wright A., Bai G.H., Barrera L., Boulahbal F., Martín-Casabona N., Drobniewski F., Gilpin C., Havelková M., Lepe R., Lumb R., Metchock B., Portaels F., Rodrigues M.F., Rüsch-Gerdes S., Van Deun A., Vincent V., Laserson K., Wells C., and Cegielski J.P. 2007. Worldwide emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:380–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Song J.H., Jung S.I., Ko K.S., Kim N.Y., Son J.S., Chang H.H., Ki H.K., Oh W.S., Suh J.Y., Peck K.R., Lee N.Y., Yang Y., Lu Q., Chongthaleong A., Chiu C.H., Lalitha M.K., Perera J., Yee T.T., Kumarasinghe G., Jamal F., Kamarulzaman A., Parasakthi N., Van P.H., Carlos C., So T., Ng T.K., and Shibl A. 2004a. High prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Asia (an ANSORP study). Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:2101–7.Google Scholar
  71. Song J.H., Hiramatsu K., Suh J.Y., Ko K.S., Ito T., Kapi M., Kiem S., Kim Y.S., Oh W.S., Peck K.R., and Lee N.Y.; Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens Study Group. 2004b. Emergence in Asian countries of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:4926–8.Google Scholar
  72. Su X., Jiang F., Qimuge, Dai X., Sun H., Ye S. 2007. Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibilities in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Nanjing, China, 1999–2006. Sex. Transm. Dis. 34:995–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Takakura S., Fujihara N., Saito T., Kudo T., Iinuma Y., and Ichiyama S. 2004. National surveillance of species distribution in blood isolates of Candida species in Japan and their susceptibility to six antifungal agents including voriconazole and micafungin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 53:283–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Takizawa Y., Taneike I., Nakagawa S., Oishi T., Nitahara Y., Iwakura N., Ozaki K., Takano M., Nakayama T., and Yamamoto T. 2005. A Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain, another such strain carrying a multiple-drug resistance plasmid, and other more-typical PVL-negative MRSA strains found in Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:3356–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Trakulsomboon S., Danchaivijitr S., Rongrungruang Y., Dhiraputra C., Susaemgrat W., Ito T., Hiramatsu K. 2001. First report of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in Thailand. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:591–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Tristram S., Jacobs M.R., and Appelbaum P.C. 2007. Antimicrobial resistance in Haemophilus influenzae. Clin Microbiol Rev. 20:368–89CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Walsh T.R., Toleman M.A., Poirel L., and Nordmann P. 2005. Metallo-beta-lactamases: the quiet before the storm? Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18:306–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wang J.L., Tseng S.P., Hsueh P.R., and Hiramatsu K. 2004. Vancomycin heteroresistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Taiwan. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:1702–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. WHO Western Pacific Gonococccal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme. 2008. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific Region, 2006. Commun. Dis. Intell. 32:48–51.Google Scholar
  80. World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis control: WHO report. Geneva: the Organization; 2006. WHO/HTM/TB/2006.362.Google Scholar
  81. Xiao Y.H., Wang J., and Li Y; on behalf of the MOH National Antimicrobial Resistance Investigation Net. 2008. Bacterial resistance surveillance in China: a report from Mohnarin 2004–2005. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 27:697–708.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Yamaguchi K., and Ohno A.; Levofloxacin Surveillance Group. 2005. Investigation of the susceptibility trends in Japan to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobial agents in a nationwide collection of clinical isolates: a longitudinal analysis from 1994 to 2002. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 52:135–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Yan J.J., Hsueh P.R., Ko W.C., Luh K.T., Tsai S.H., Wu H.M., and Wu J.J. 2001. Metallo-beta-lactamases in clinical Pseudomonas isolates in Taiwan and identification of VIM-3, a novel variant of the VIM-2 enzyme. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:2224–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Yan J.J., Chiou C.S., Lauderdale T.L., Tsai S.H., and Wu J.J. 2005. Cephalosporin and ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella, Taiwan. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:947–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Yoo J., Sohn E.S., Chung G.T., Lee E.H., Lee K.R., Park Y.K., Lee Y.S. 2008. Five-year report of national surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from non-tertiary care hospitals in Korea (2002–2006). Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 60:291–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Yokota S., Ohkoshi Y., Sato K., and Fujii N. 2008. Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Haemophilus influenzae strains among elderly patients but not among children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:361–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Yu W.L., Chuang Y.C., and Walther-Rasmussen J. 2006. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in Taiwan: epidemiology, detection, treatment and infection control J. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect. 39:264–77Google Scholar
  88. Yu Y., Ji S., Chen Y., Zhou W., Wei Z., Li L., and Ma Y. 2007. Resistance of strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and genotype distribution in China. J. Infect. 54:53–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Divisions of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Internal MedicineNational Taiwan University HospitalTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Divisions of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Internal MedicineNational Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of MedicineTaipeiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations