Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Africa

  • Iruka N. Okeke
  • Kayode K. Ojo


Antimicrobial resistance is becoming increasingly important in high-burden infectious diseases in Africa. Resistance to affordable antimalarials and antibacterials has worsened patient prognosis, increased health-care costs, and is a barrier to effective health care. This chapter outlines the African situation for a few infectious diseases and discusses mitigating factors, particularly selective pressure from antimicrobial use. Overuse of antimicrobials for prevention and treatment of real or supposed infections, unregulated antimicrobial sales as well as poor antimicrobial quality assurance may be important contributors to the problem by providing selective pressure for the emergence and spread of resistant strains. In addition to addressing these problems, containment of resistant strains and improvement of diagnostic infrastructure are necessary interventions for resistance control.


Typhoid Fever Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Artemisinin Combination Therapy Entomologic Inoculation Rate Antimicrobial Prophylaxis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



INO is a Branco Weiss Fellow of the Society-in-Science, ETHZ, Zürich, Switzerland.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyHaverford CollegeHaverfordUSA
  2. 2.Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Department of MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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