Three Converging Literatures of Transnationalization and the Varieties of Transnationalization: Introduction

  • László Bruszt
  • Ronald Holzhacker

Two decades after the fall of the Berlin Wall, we are witnessing an ever quickening dissolution of the boundaries among internal and external actors in the countries of Europe and the factors inducing domestic institutional change. If one takes the example of the 10 new Eastern and Central European member countries of the European Union, these countries best exemplify one new pattern of change that we discuss in this book. In the economies of these countries, international cross-ownership networks play a growing role (Bohle and Greskovits 2007; Stark and Vedres 2006). While 80–90% of the banks are in foreign ownership in the region, foreign companies also own key parts of the manufacturing sectors, and many of the firms in these sectors form part of transnational production chains. These economies are governed by states that share ever larger parts of their regulative powers with nondomestic actors (Bruszt and Stark 2003). As a condition of joining the European Union, these countries had to adopt tens of thousands of pages of EU regulations, ranging from rules of competition to state aid, environmental regulations and food safety regulations to institutions of corporate governance. The great quantity of rules of nondomestic origins has increased further with the participation of these states in diverse regional and global institutions with standard-setting and rule-making functions ranging from WTO and ILO to specific multilateral agreements.


Civil Society Corporate Governance Domestic Actor Rule Transfer Domestic State 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Andonova, Liliana. (2003): Transnational Politics of the Environment: The European Union and Environmental Policy in Central and Eastern Europe. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bartley, Tim. (2007): ‘Institutional emergence in an era of globalization: The rise of transnational private regulation of labor and environmental conditions.’ American Journal of Sociology. 113: 297–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bohle, Dorothee and Greskovits Béla. (2007): ‘Neoliberalism, embedded neoliberalism and neocorporatism: Towards transnational capitalism in East-Central Europe.’ West European Politics. 30(3): 443–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Botzem, Sebastian and Quack Sigrid. (2006): ‘Contested rules and shifting boundaries: International standard-setting in accounting,’ in Marie-Laure Djelic and Kerstin Sahlin-Andersson (eds.), Transnational Governance. Institutional Dynamics of Regulation. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 266–286.Google Scholar
  5. Brunsson, Nils and Jacobsson Bengt (eds.) (2000): A World of Standards. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bruszt, László. (2002): ‘Making markets and Eastern enlargement: Diverging convergence?’ West European Politics. 25(2): 121–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bruszt, László and Greskovits Bela. (2008): ‘Transnationalization, social integration and capitalist diversity in the East and the South’. Paper presented at the workshop “International Inequality, Then and Now: Revisiting Cardoso and Faletto’s Dependency and Development in Latin America” held at the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University on April 4–5, 2008, Manuscript.Google Scholar
  8. Bruszt, László and David Stark. (2003): ‘Who counts?: Supranational norms and societal needs.’ East European Politics and Societies. 17: 74–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burawoy, Michael, Joseph Blum, Sheba George, Zsuszsa Gille, Teresa Gowan, Lynne Haney et al. (2000): Global Ethnography Forces, Connections, and Imaginations in a Postmodern World. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  10. Callaghan, Helen and Martin Hoepner. (2005): ‘European integration and the clash of capitalisms: Political cleavages over takeover liberalization.’ Comparative European Politics. 3: 307–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. della Porta, Donatella and Sidney G. Tarrow. (2005): Transnational Protest and Global Activism. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  12. Djelic, Marie-Laure and Kerstin Sahlin-Andersson. (2006): ‘Introduction: A world of governance: The rise of transnational regulation,’ in Marie-Laure Djelic and Kerstin Sahlin-Andersson (eds.), Transnational Governance. Institutional Dynamics of Regulation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Djelic, Marie-Laure and Quack Sigrid. (2003): ‘Theoretical building blocks for a research agenda linking globalization and institutions,’ in Marie-Laure Djelic and Quack Sigrid (eds.), Globalization and Institutions: Redefining the Rules of the Economic Game. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  14. Djelic, Marie-Laure and Kerstin Sahlin-Andersson (eds.) (2006): Transnational Governance. Institutional Dynamics of Regulation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Duina, Francesco. (2007): The Social Construction of Free Trade: The European Union, NAFTA, and Mercosur. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Dyson, Kenneth (ed.) (2006): Enlarging the Euro Area: External Empowerment and Domestic Transformation in East Central Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Easterly, William R. (2006): The White Man’s Burden: Why the West’s Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  18. Epstein, Rachel. (2008): ‘Transnational actors and bank privatization,’ in Mitchell A. Orenstein, Stephen Bloom, and Nicole Lindstrom (eds.), Transnational Actors in Central and East European Transitions. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  19. Evans, Peter (ed.) (2000): ‘Fighting marginalization with transnational networks: Counter-hegemonic mobilization.’ Contemporary Sociology. 29(1): 230–241.Google Scholar
  20. Gereffi, Gary and Stephanie Fonda. (1992): ‘Regional paths to development.’ Annual Review of Sociology. 18: 419–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gereffi, Gary. (2004): ‘The global economy: Organization, governance, and development,’ in Neil Smelser and Richard Swedberg (eds.), Handbook of Economic Sociology. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  22. Greskovits, Béla. (2005): ‘Leading sectors and the varieties of capitalism in Eastern Europe.’ Actes de Gerpisa. 39: 113–128.Google Scholar
  23. Haggard, Stephan and Robert R. Kaufman (2008). Recrafting Social Contracts: Welfare Reform in Latin America, East Asia and Central Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Jacoby, Wade. (2008). ‘Minority traditions and postcommunist politics: How do IGO’s matter,’ in Mitchel Orenstein, Stephen Bloom, and Nicole Lindstrom (eds.), Transnational Actors in Central and East European Transitions. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 56–76.Google Scholar
  25. Jordana, Jacint and David Levi-Faur. (2006): ‘Towards a Latin American Regulatory State? The diffusion of autonomous regulatory agencies across countries and sectors.’ International Journal of Public Administration. 29(4–6): 335–366.Google Scholar
  26. Kelley, Judith. (2004): Ethnic Politics in Europe: The Power of Norms and Incentives. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Koslinski, Mariane Campelo and Elisa P. Reis. (2008): ‘Transnational and domestic relations of NGOs in Brazil.’ World Development. 37(3): 714–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Morgan, Glenn. (2001): ‘Transnational communities and business systems, in: Global Networks.’ A Journal of Transnational Affairs. 1(2): 113–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. O’Riain, Sean. (2000): ‘The flexible developmental state: Globalization, information technology, and the “Celtic Tiger”.’ Politics and Society. 28(2): 157–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Orenstein, Mitchell and Hans Peter Schmitz. (2006): ‘The new transnationalism and comparative politics.’ Comparative Politics. 38(4).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Orenstein, Mitchel, Stephen Bloom, and Nicole Lindstrom (eds.) (2008). Transnational Actors in Central and East European Transitions. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh PressGoogle Scholar
  32. Power, Michael. (1997): The Audit Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Ruggie, John Gerard. (1982): ‘International regimes, transactions, and change: Embedded liberalism in the postwar economic order.’ International Organization. 36(2): 379–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sabel, Charles F. and Jonathan Zeitlin. (2007): ‘Learning from Difference: The new architecture of experimentalist governance in the European Union’. European Governance (EUROGOV) Papers.Google Scholar
  35. Schimmelfennig, Frank and Ulrich Sedelmeier. (2004): ‘Governance by conditionality: EU rule transfer to the candidate countries of Central and Eastern Europe.’ Journal of European Public Policy. 11(4): 661–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schimmelfennig, Frank and Ulrich Seidelmeier (eds.) (2005): The Europeanization of Central and Eastern Europe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Sedelmeier, Ulrich and Rachel Epstein. (2008): ‘Beyond conditionality: International institutions in postcommunist Europe after enlargement.’ Journal of European Public Policy. 15(6): 795–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stallings, Barbara. (1990): ‘The role of foreign capital in economic development,’ in Gary Gereffi and Donald L. Wyman (eds.), Manufacturing Miracles. Paths of Industrialization in Latin America and East Asia. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 55–89.Google Scholar
  39. Stark, David, Balazs Vedres and Bruszt László. (2006): ‘Rooted transnational publics: Integrating foreign ties and civic activism.’ Theory and Society. 353: 323–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Stark, David and Balazs Vedres. (2006): ‘Social times of network spaces: Network sequences and foreign investment in Hungary.’ American Journal of Sociology. 111(5): 1367–1411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Stark, David, Balazs Vedres and Bruszt Laszlo. (2006): ‘Rooted transnational publics: Interfacing civic activism and foreign ties.’ Theory and Society. 353: 323–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stone, Diane. (2004): ‘Transfer agents and global networks in the “transnationalization” of policy.’ Journal of European Public Policy. 113: 546–566.Google Scholar
  43. Streeck, Wolfgang. (1995): ‘Neo-voluntarism: A new European social policy regime?’ European Law Journal. 1(1): 31–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tarrow, Sidney. (2005): The New Transnational Activism. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vachudova, Milada. (2005). Europe Undivided: Democracy, Leverage and Integration After Communism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Vogel, David and Robert A. Kagan. (2002): ‘National Regulations in a Global Economy’ UCIAS Edited Volume 1. Dynamics of Regulatory Change: How Globalization Affects National Regulatory Policies. University of California International and Area Studies Digital Collection.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political and Social SciencesEuropean University InstituteFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.University of Twente and Head of Studies, social sciences, at Amsterdam University CollegeAmsterdamNetherlands

Personalised recommendations