Retinoblastoma pp 133-141 | Cite as

Retinoblastoma in Developing Countries

  • G. L. ChantadaEmail author
  • S. Luna-Fineman
  • I. Qaddoumi
  • A. Furmanchuk
  • J. Wilimas
Part of the Pediatric Oncology book series (PEDIATRICO)


The term developing countries refers to nations with relatively low per capita income, usually poorly industrialized societies lacking basic services for health and sanitation with widespread poverty and low literacy rates. Access to health care is limited in these societies. This term has been criticized and alternatives like, “less developed country,” have been proposed, but developing country is the most widely used term and will be used throughout this article. There is some variability in opinion as to which countries are developing countries based only on the gross domestic per capita product. Therefore, the Human Development Index (HDI) was developed as a reliable indicator. This index is a comparative measure of life expectancy, education, literacy, and general standard of living. Most countries can be included into one of three groups (low, intermediate, and high). They can also be classified as developed, developing, and under-developed countries. Some countries with an acceptable HDI may have wide inequities in the care they provide to different segments of their societies and this will have an impact on the results of treatment of children with cancer (Scopinaro and Casak 2002).

Childhood cancer often receives little attention in the less developed societies because other problems, such as infection, poor hygiene, and malnutrition are given higher priority. As these problems are gradually controlled, pediatric cancer becomes an important cause of mortality, and many less developed countries have started programs to address this problem (Howard et al. 2007). Pediatric cancer in developing countries has unique problems that influence the care of children with the disease. Late diagnosis and refusal of treatment, abandonment of therapy are the most common problems faced in this setting and need to be addressed appropriately (Spinetta et al. 2002).


Childhood Cancer Human Development Index Pediatric Cancer Late Diagnosis Transpupillary Thermotherapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. L. Chantada
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Luna-Fineman
    • 2
  • I. Qaddoumi
    • 3
  • A. Furmanchuk
    • 4
  • J. Wilimas
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Hematology and OncologyHospital JP GarrahanBuenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.California Pacific Medical CenterSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Department of OncologySt. Jude Children’s Research HospitalMemphisUSA
  4. 4.Department of OncologyOphthalmologist, Belarusian Scientific Research Centre For Pediatric Oncology and HematologyMinskBelarus

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