Anatomic Considerations



A thorough understanding of nasal anatomy is essential to successful nasal reconstruction. Addressing deficiencies of the external soft-tissue envelope, nasal framework, and internal mucosal lining is an important part of achieving an optimal aesthetic and functional outcome.


Nasal Bone Septal Cartilage Lateral Cartilage Alar Cartilage Nasal Reconstruction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Simons RL. Adjunctive measures in rhinoplasty. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1975;8:17.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Crumley RL, Lancer R. Quantitative analysis of nasal tip projection. Laryngoscope. 1988;2:202.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burget GC, Menick FJ. The subunit principle in nasal reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1985;76:239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lessard ML, Daniel RK. Surgical anatomy of septorhinoplasty. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1985;111:25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zingaro EA, Falces E. Aesthetic anatomy of the non-Caucasian nose. Plast Surg Clin. 1987;14:749.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Oneal RM, Beil RJ, Schlesinger J. Surgical anatomy of the nose. Clin Plast Surg. 1996;23:195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Firmin F. Discussion on Letourneau A, Daniel RK: the superficial musculoaponeurotic system of the nose. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1988;82:56.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Griesman BL. Muscles and cartilages of the nose from the standpoint of typical rhinoplasty. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1994;39:334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Letourneau A, Daniel RK. The superficial musculoaponeurotic system of the nose. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1988;82:48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Daniel RK, Letourneau A. Rhinoplasty: nasal anatomy. Ann Plast Surg. 1988;20:5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wright WK. Surgery of the bony and cartilaginous dorsum. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1975;8:575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Burget GC, Menick FJ. Nasal support and lining: the marriage of beauty and blood supply. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1989;84:189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Michigan School of MedicineAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations