Interpolated Paramedian Forehead Flaps Open image in new window

  • Shan R. Baker


Median forehead flaps were first described in an Indian medical treatise, the Sushruta Samita, in approximately 700 BC.1 3 The operation was performed by members of a caste of potters known as the Koomas. The need for this operation arose from the common Indian practice of amputating the tip of the nose as punishment for a variety of crimes, ranging from robbery to adultery.4 ,5 The first reported use of the median forehead flap outside of India was by Antonio Branca of Italy. Based on an Arabic translation of the Sushruta Samita, Branca performed a nasal reconstruction using the mid-forehead flap in the fifteenth century.6 , 7 In the sixteenth and early seventh centuries, little advancement was made in the use of the median forehead flap because plastic and reconstructive surgery fell into disrepute.4 ,5,7 The flap had a revival in 1794, when J.C. Carpue read an editorial in the Gentlemen’s Gazette of London describing the flap’s use for nasal reconstruction.810 Initially, Carpue practiced the median forehead flap operation on cadavers.


Cartilage Graft Frontalis Muscle Forehead Flap Nasal Reconstruction Nasal Defect 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Michigan School of MedicineAnn ArborUSA

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