History of Nasal Reconstruction



Injury and disfigurement of the nose have been well described. Nasal deformity has been attributed to self-infliction, mutilation as a form of punishment, and various disease states. The first recorded account of mutilation as a form of punishment was in 1500 BC when, in India, Prince Lakshmana deliberately amputated the nose of Lady Surpunakha. King Ravana arranged for the reconstruction of Lady Surpunakha’s nose by his physicians, documenting one of the earliest accounts of nasal reconstruction.1 During the ninth century, Danes slit the noses of Irishmen who could not pay their taxes, and Sixtus Quintus of Rome mandated the amputation of the noses of thieves during the sixteenth century.


Costal Cartilage Internal Lining Cartilage Graft Frontalis Muscle Forehead Flap 



The author thanks Larry S. Nichter, M.D. for his assistance and permission to use various photographs and drawings in this chapter.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Michigan School of MedicineAnn ArborUSA

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