Because sol-gel is a convenient technique for the fabrication of oxide coatings, many researchers have investigated its application in the fabrication of optical waveguides. Optical fibers can also be manufactured using sol-gel preforms [1, 2], but we will concern ourselves here with planar geometries. Light will be guided in any transparent dielectric material surrounded by a dielectric of lower refractive index. Thus the simplest thin film waveguide geometry, and hence the most studied, is obtained by depositing a coating on a transparent substrate of lower index than the coating.


Optical Waveguide Transverse Electric Strain Energy Release Channel Waveguide Slab Waveguide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J.B. MacChesney, D.W. Johnson, S. Bhandarkar, M.P. Bohrer, J.W. Fleming, E.M. Monberg, D.J. Trevor, Optical fibers by a hybrid process using sol-gel silica overcladding tubes, J. NonCryst. Sol., 226, 232 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Shibata, Sol-gel derived silica preforms for optical fibers, J. Non-Cryst. Sol., 178, 272 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Kogelnick, Theory of Dielectric Waveguides, in: Integrated Optics, T. Tamir (editor), Berlin: Springer-Verlag (1975)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E.M. Yeatman, Sol-gel fabrication for optical communication components: prospects and progress, in: Proc. SPIE, 68, 119 (1997)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    B.D. MacCraith, C. McDonagh, A.K. McEvoy. T. Butler, G. O’Keeffe, V. Murphy, Optical chemical sensors based on sol-gel materials: recent advances and critical issues, J. Sol-Gel Sci & Tech, 8, 1053 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Ulrich, H.P. Weber, Solution-deposited thin films as passive and active light-guides, Appl. Opt., 11, 428 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    P.P. Herrmann, D. Wildmann, Fabrication of planar dielectric waveguides with high optical damage threshold, J. Quant. Elect., 19, 1735 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R.L. Roncone, L.A. Weller-Brophy, B.J.J. Zelinski, Sol-gel synthesis of planar optical waveguides and integrated components, in: Ultrastructure Processing of Advanced Materials, D.R. Uhlmann, D.R. Ulrich (editors), New York: John Wiley & Sons (1992)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. Weisenbach, B.J.J. Zelinski, J. O’Kelly, R.L. Roncone, J.J. Burke, The influence of processing variables on the optical properties of SiO2-TiO2 planar waveguides, in: Proc. SPIE, 1590, 50 (1991)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    L. Yang, S.S. Saavedra, N.R. Armstrong, J. Hayes, Fabrication and characterisation of low-loss, sol-gel planar waveguides, Anal. Chem., 66, 1254 (1994) Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A.S. Holmes, R.R.A. Syms, LiMing, M. Green, Fabrication of buried channel waveguides on silicon substrates using spin-on glass,Appl. Opt., 32, 4916 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Green, R.R.A. Syms, A.S. Holmes, K. Ueki, H1. Yanagawa, Method of manufacturing silica waveguide optical components, U.S. patent No. 5378256 (1995)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R.R.A. Syms, V. Schneider, W. Huang, A.S. Holmes, Low loss achieved in sol-gel based silicaon-silicon integrated optics using borophosphosilicate glass,Electr. Lett., 31, 1833 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R.R.A. Syms, W. Huang, V. Schneider, Optimisation of born-phosphosilicate glass compositions for silica-on-silicon integrated optical circuits fabricated by the sol-gel process,Electr. Lett., 32, 1233 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    E.M. Yeatman, K. Pita, M.M. Ahmad, Strip-loaded high-confinement waveguides for photonic applications, J. Sol-Gel Sci & Tech, 13, 517 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y. Sorek, R. Reisfeld, Sol-gel glass waveguides prepared at low temperature, Appl. Phys. Lett., 63, 3256 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. Schmidt, Inorganic-organic composites for optoelectronics, in: Sol-gel optics: processing and applications, L.C. Klein (editor), Kluwer Academic Publishers (1994)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    C.Y. Li, J. Chisham, M. Andrews, S.I. Najaf, J.D. MacKenzie, N. Peyghambarian, Sol-gel integrated optical coupler by ultraviolet light imprinting,Electr. Lett., 31, 271 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M.A. Fardad, M. Fallahi, Organic-inorganic materials for integrated optoelectronics, Flectr.Lett., 34, 1940 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. Krug, N. Merl, H. Schmidt, Fine patterning of thin sol-gel films, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 147&148, 447 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Pelli, G.C. Righini, A. Verciani, M. Guglielmi, A. Martucci, A. Scaglione, Laser writing of optical waveguides in sol-gel films, in: Proc. SPIE, 2213, 58 (1994)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    F.G. Araujo, T. Chia, L.L Hench, Process of making channel waveguides in gel-silica, U.S. Patent No. 5634955 (1997)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    K.D. Simmons, G.I. Stegeman, B.G. Potter, J.H. Simmons, Photosensitivity in germane-silicate sol-gel thin films, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 179, 254 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    P.T. Guerreiro, S.G. Lee, A.S. Rodrigues, Y.Z. Hu, E.M. Wright, S.I. Najafi, J.D. Mackenzie, N. Peyghambarian, Femtosecond pulse propagation near a two-photon transition in a semiconductor quantum dot waveguide, Optics Lett., 21, 659 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Guglielmi, A. Martucci, R.M. Almeida, H.C. Vasconcelos, E.M. Yeatman, E.J.C. Dawnay, M.A. Fardad, Spinning deposition of silica and silica-titania optical coatings: A round robin test, .1. Mater. Res., 13, 731 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Y.P. Li, C.H. Henry, Silica-based optical integrated circuits, IEE Proc.-Optoelectron., 143, 263 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Kawachi, Recent progress in silica-based planar lightwave circuits on silicon, IEE Proc. Optoelectron., 143, 257 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    E.M. Yeatman, M.M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Vannucci, P. Gastaldo, D. Barbier, D. Mongardien, C. Moronvalle, Optical gain in Er-doped SiO2-TiO2 waveguides fabricated by the solgel technique,Optics. Commun., 164, 19 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M.A. Fardad, E.M. Yeatman, E.J.C. Dawnay, Mino Green, J. Fick, M. Guntau, G. Vitrant, Fabrication and characterisation of a CdS-doped silica-on-silicon planar waveguide,IEE Proc. Optoelectronics , 143, 298 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J.R. Busch, S.D. Ramamurthi, S.L. Swartz, V.E. Wood, Linear electro-optic response in sol-gel PZT planar waveguides,Electr. Lett., 28, 1591 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. M. Yeatman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations