Metastatic Tumors

  • Yener S. Erozan
  • Ibrahim Ramzy
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 6)

The development of pulmonary metastases is one of the most common findings in late stages of malignancies. Autopsy studies demonstrate metastasis in 50–100% of patients with a wide variety of malignancies. The relative incidence of the primary sites reflects changing epidemiology of various cancers over time and across geographic locations. In North America, as an example, breast is the most common source; in the Far East the majority originates in the gastrointestinal tract. In women, the most likely source of hematogenous spread is the breast, ovary, colon, and mesenchymal malignancies, while in men, the colon, kidney and testis are often the source. Lymphangitic spread is responsible for about 7% of lung metastases, and almost all such tumors are adenocarcinomas originating from breast, gastrointestinal tract, prostate, pancreas, ovary and lung.

Metastatic lesions usually present as multiple nodules, but in 1–5% of cases a solitary mass is encountered, particularly in carcinomas of...


Renal Cell Carcinoma Clear Cell Signet Ring Cell Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma Epithelioid Sarcoma 
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Suggested Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Johns Hopkins School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.University of IrvineUSA

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