Hyperplasia, Reactive Changes and Metaplasia

  • Yener S. Erozan
  • Ibrahim Ramzy
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 6)

The epithelium of the respiratory tract responds to injury in several ways that include hyperplasia, metaplasia, degeneration, repair, inflammation or neoplasia. Although these are often nonspecific reactions, others have characteristic cytologic features that point to specific etiology. Recognizing these reactive changes as manifested in cytologic specimens is critical, particularly since some may be misinterpreted as neoplastic transformation of the epithelium.

Hyperplastic and Reactive Changes

Goblet Cell Hyperplasia

Goblet cells are mucinous cells that are present between ciliated columnar cells lining the bronchi, gradually decreasing in number as they approach the terminal bronchioles. Their proliferation is often one of the early responses to various irritants, including allergens, environmental toxins, or smoke. Goblet cell hyperplasia is also a major component of the response to chronic inflammation, chronic bronchitis, or bronchiectasis. These cells also proliferate in...


Small Cell Carcinoma Columnar Cell Squamous Metaplasia Diffuse Alveolar Damage Viral Pneumonia 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Johns Hopkins School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.University of IrvineUSA

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