The United Kingdom and Ireland

  • M. R. Haberfeld
  • Joseph F. King
  • Charles Andrew Lieberman


England has been the source of much of the legal history of the Western world. “Our English police system…rests on foundations designed with the full approval of the people, we know not how many hundreds of years before the Norman conquest, and has been slowly molded by the careful hand of experience, developing as a rule along the line of least resistance, now in advance of the general intelligence of the country, now lagging far behind, but always in the long run adjusting itself to the popular temper, always consistent with local self-government, and even at its worst, always English” (Lee, 1971, p. xxvii). The development of our common law system, like that of our modern police, is seated in the English traditions.


Terrorist Attack Explosive Device International Terrorism Extreme Violence Metropolitan Police 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



As a disclaimer, prior to the overview the countries that were visited and described based on the team’s impressions, it is important to note that the original purpose of this study was to gather impressions and attitudes and training materials that would allow the researchers to create and disseminate training modules for law enforcement agencies in both the US and the countries involved in the research study. Due to this objective, the team committed itself to protect the identities of the individuals who were interviewed, in addition to limiting identifiable details about the specific units and members of the community. The researchers are aware that the information presented here in the Field Research Sections is therefore a more generalized and sanitized version than the one the reader would like to see, but the final format of this report is not the one the team collected the data for.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. R. Haberfeld
    • 1
  • Joseph F. King
    • 1
  • Charles Andrew Lieberman
    • 1
  1. 1.City University of New York, John Jay college of Criminal JusticeNew YorkUSA

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