The Gibbons pp 51-71 | Cite as

Vocal Diversity of Kloss’s Gibbons (Hylobates Klossii) in the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia

  • Sally A. Keith
  • Melissa S. Waller
  • Thomas Geissmann
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)


Gibbons (family Hylobatidae) are generally described as monogamous, frugivorous, arboreal, and territorial apes and inhabit tropical and subtropical forests of South and Southeast Asia (Marshall and Sugardjito 1986; Leighton 1987; Chivers 2001; Geissmann 2003). All gibbon species are known to produce elaborate, loud, long, and stereotyped patterns of vocalization often referred to as “songs” (Marshall and Marshall 1976; Haimoff 1984; Geissmann 1993, 1995, 2002b, 2003). Generally, song bouts are produced in the early morning and last approximately 10–30 min. Species-specific song characteristics in gibbons are thought to have a strong genetic component (Brockelman and Schilling 1984; Geissmann 1984; Tenaza 1985; Marshall and Sugardjito 1986; Mather 1992; Geissmann 1993). It has previously been demonstrated that gibbon song characteristics are useful for assessing systematic relationships on the level of the gibbon genus, species and local population, and for reconstructing...


Discriminant Function Analysis Vocal Characteristic Leaf Monkey Southern Island Song Structure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We express our gratitude to the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) and the government of the Republic of Indonesia for granting permission for this research. We also thank Prof. Simon Bearder and the staff at Oxford Brookes University, Danielle Whittaker, Susan Cheyne, Twycross Zoo UK, Noviar Andayani of Universitas Indonesia, Dr. Mansyurdin and the Biology Department at Universitas Andalas, Taman Nasional Siberut, Pak Sahruhidin, PT Minas Pagai Lumber Corporation, Kepala Desa of Saureinu and Reni of Conservation International for all their help, advice, and relevant permissions. We are grateful to the Cornell Ornithology team for granting a free Raven 1.2 software license and related technical support. Special thanks to Tandri Eka Putra and all the local field guides.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sally A. Keith
    • 1
  • Melissa S. Waller
    • 2
  • Thomas Geissmann
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Conservation Sciences, Bournemouth UniversityTalbot CampusUK
  2. 2.Department of Anthropology, Oxford Brookes UniversityUK
  3. 3.Anthropological Institute, University Zürich–IrchelSwitzerland

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