The Gibbons pp 453-465 | Cite as

The Population Distribution and Abundance of Siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus) and Agile Gibbons (Hylobates agilis) in West Central Sumatra, Indonesia

  • Achmad Yanuar
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)


Sumatran gibbons are presently experiencing serious population declines, due largely to habitat loss (from illegal and legal logging, traditional and modern crop plantations, land clearance for agriculture and new settlements/transmigration, forest fires, and droughts), as well as hunting for illegal trade as medicines and pets. In Sumatra, primary tropical rain forests, especially in the lowlands, have disappeared rapidly, with most of the land being converted for commercial timber concessions, crop plantations, or agricultural and human settlements (FAO 1981; Jepson et al. 2001).

Three gibbon species occur in the tropical rain forests of Sumatra: siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus), white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar), and agile gibbons (H. agilis: Groves 1972; Wilson and Wilson 1976; Rijksen 1978). The white-handed gibbon is sympatric with the siamang in northern Sumatra, while the agile gibbon occurs sympatrically with the siamang in central and south Sumatra (Wilson...


Habitat Type Montane Forest Direct Distance Lowland Forest Group Density 
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I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr David J. Chivers, University Reader in Primate Biology and Conservation, Anatomy School, University of Cambridge, for his advice, encouragement, and comments on this manuscript. I am extremely grateful to Fauna and Flora International (FFI) through their Project Orang Pendek (POP) and Biodiversity Assessment in Kerinci-Seblat National Park, Sumatra, which gave me the inspiration to survey those animals. I thank the Indonesia Institute of Science (LIPI) (especially Dr Jito Sugardjito), and the Ministry of Forestry of Indonesia for sponsorship, support, and permission to undertake this study in Kerinci-Seblat National Park. Finally, I would like to express my deep thanks to the Gibbon Foundation, in particular Dr Willie Smits, for financial support during the writing of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wildlife Research Group, Anatomy SchoolUniversity of CambridgeUK

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