Advertisement

Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery

  • Sanjay Datta
  • Bhavani Shankar Kodali
  • Scott Segal
Chapter

Abstract

Regional Anesthesia

Spinal Anesthesia (Subarachnoid Block)

Problems Associated with Spinal Anesthesia

Medications for Spinal Anesthesia

Summary of Spinal Anesthesia for Cesarean Section

Keywords

Cesarean Section Cesarean Delivery Spinal Anesthesia Epidural Anesthesia Laryngeal Mask Airway 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Taffel SM, Placek PJ, Liss T. Trends in the United States cesarean section rate and reasons for the 1980–85 rise. Am J Public Health. 1987;77(8):955–959.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    QuickStats: Percentage of All Live Births by Cesarean Delivery – National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2005. CDC, MMWR weekly. 2007;57(15):373.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wagner M. Choosing caesarean section. Lancet. 2000;356(9242):1677–1680.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mukherjee SN. Rising cesarean rate. J Obstet Gynecol India. 2006;56(4):298–300.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Crocker JS, Vandam LD. Concerning nausea and vomiting during spinal anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 1959;20:587–592.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ueland K, Gills RE, Hansen JM. Maternal cardiovascular dynamics. I. Cesarean section under subarachnoid block anesthesia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1968;100(1):42–54.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cosmi EV, Marx GF. [Acid–base state of the fetus and clinical conditions of the newborn at birth following halothane anesthesia]. Riv Ostet Ginecol. 1968;23(4):263–268.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Corke BC, Datta S, Ostheimer GW, Weiss JB, Alper MH. Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. The influence of hypotension on neonatal outcome. Anaesthesia. 1982;37(6):658–662.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hollmen AI, Jouppila R, Koivisto M, et al. Neurologic activity of infants following anesthesia for cesarean section. Anesthesiology. 1978;48(5):350–356.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marx GF, Cosmi EV, Wollman SB. Biochemical status and clinical condition of mother and infant at cesarean section. Anesth Analg. 1969;48(6):986–994.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rout CC, Rocke DA, Levin J, Gouws E, Reddy D. A reevaluation of the role of crystalloid preload in the prevention of hypotension associated with spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean section. Anesthesiology. 1993;79(2):262–269.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Park GE, Hauch MA, Curlin F, Datta S, Bader AM. The effects of varying volumes of crystalloid administration before cesarean delivery on maternal hemodynamics and colloid osmotic pressure. Anesth Analg. 1996;83(2):299–303.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jackson R, Reid JA, Thorburn J. Volume preloading is not essential to prevent spinal-induced hypotension at caesarean section. Br J Anaesth. 1995;75(3):262–265.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dahlgren G, Granath F, Pregner K, Rosblad PG, Wessel H, Irestedt L. Colloid vs. crystalloid preloading to prevent maternal hypotension during spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean section. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2005;49(8):1200–1206.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Siddik SM, Aouad MT, Kai GE, Sfeir MM, Baraka AS. Hydroxyethylstarch 10% is superior to Ringer’s solution for preloading before spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Can J Anaesth. 2000;47(7):616–621.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kenepp NB, Kumar S, Shelley WC, Stanley CA, Gabbe SG, Gutsche BB. Fetal and neonatal hazards of maternal hydration with 5% dextrose before caesarean section. Lancet. 1982;1(8282):1150–1152.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Philipson EH, Kalhan SC, Riha MM, Pimentel R. Effects of maternal glucose infusion on fetal acid–base status in human pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1987;157(4 Pt 1):866–873.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee A, Ngan Kee WD, Gin T. A dose–response meta-analysis of prophylactic intravenous ephedrine for the prevention of hypotension during spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg. 2004;98(2):483–490, table of contents.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mercier FJ, Riley ET, Frederickson WL, Roger-Christoph S, Benhamou D, Cohen SE. Phenylephrine added to prophylactic ephedrine infusion during spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean section. Anesthesiology. 2001;95(3):668–674.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Thomas DG, Robson SC, Redfern N, Hughes D, Boys RJ. Randomized trial of bolus phenylephrine or ephedrine for maintenance of arterial pressure during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. Br J Anaesth. 1996;76(1):61–65.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cooper DW, Carpenter M, Mowbray P, Desira WR, Ryall DM, Kokri MS. Fetal and maternal effects of phenylephrine and ephedrine during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Anesthesiology. 2002;97(6):1582–1590.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ngan Kee WD, Lee A, Khaw KS, Ng FF, Karmakar MK, Gin T. A randomized double-blinded comparison of phenylephrine and ephedrine infusion combinations to maintain blood pressure during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery: the effects on fetal acid–base status and hemodynamic control. Anesth Analg. 2008;107(4):1295–1302.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Loughrey JP, Yao N, Datta S, Segal S, Pian-Smith M, Tsen LC. Hemodynamic effects of spinal anesthesia and simultaneous intravenous bolus of combined phenylephrine and ephedrine versus ephedrine for cesarean delivery. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2005;14(1):43–47.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Clark RB, Thompson DS, Thompson CH. Prevention of spinal hypotension associated with cesarean section. Anesthesiology. 1976;45(6):670–674.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Datta S, Alper MH, Ostheimer GW, Weiss JB. Method of ephedrine administration and nausea and hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Anesthesiology. 1982;56(1):68–70.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bonica JJ, Crepps W, Monk B, Bennett B. Postanesthetic nausea, retching and vomiting; evaluation of cyclizine (marezine) suppositories for treatment. Anesthesiology. 1958;19(4):532–540.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hunt CO, Naulty JS, Bader AM, et al. Perioperative analgesia with subarachnoid fentanyl-bupivacaine for cesarean delivery. Anesthesiology. 1989;71(4):535–540.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ackerman WE, Juneja MM, Colciough GW. Epidural fentanyl significantly decreases nausea and vomiting during uterine manipulation in awake patients undergoing cesarean section (abstract). Anesthesiology. 1988;1988(69):679.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Santos A, Datta S. Prophylactic use of droperidol for control of nausea and vomiting during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Anesth Analg. 1984;63(1):85–87.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Meister GC, D’Angelo R, Owen M, Nelson KE, Gaver R. A comparison of epidural analgesia with 0.125% ropivacaine with fentanyl versus 0.125% bupivacaine with fentanyl during labor. Anesth Analg. 2000;90(3):632–637.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chestnut DH, Vandewalker GE, Owen CL, Bates JN, Choi WW. Administration of metoclopramide for prevention of nausea and vomiting during epidural anesthesia for elective cesarean section. Anesthesiology. 1987;66(4):563–566.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wu JI, Lo Y, Chia YY, et al. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after intrathecal morphine for cesarean section: a randomized comparison of dexamethasone, droperidol, and a combination. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2007;16(2):122–127.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Peixoto AJ, Celich MF, Zardo L, Peixoto Filho AJ. Ondansetron or droperidol for prophylaxis of nausea and vomiting after intrathecal morphine. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2006;23(8):670–675.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Harnett MJ, O’Rourke N, Walsh M, Carabuena JM, Segal S. Transdermal scopolamine for prevention of intrathecal morphine-induced nausea and vomiting after cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg. 2007;105(3):764–769.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Allen TK, Habib AS. P6 stimulation for the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with cesarean delivery under neuraxial anesthesia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Anesth Analg. 2008;107(4):1308–1312.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stein DJ, Birnbach DJ, Danzer BI, Kuroda MM, Grunebaum A, Thys DM. Acupressure versus intravenous metoclopramide to prevent nausea and vomiting during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Anesth Analg. 1997;84(2):342–345.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rothenberg DM, Parnass SM, Litwack K, McCarthy RJ, Newman LM. Efficacy of ephedrine in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. 1991;72(1):58–61.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tarhan O, Canbay O, Celebi N, et al. Subhypnotic doses of midazolam prevent nausea and vomiting during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Minerva Anestesiol. 2007;73(12):629–633.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Richman JM, Joe EM, Cohen SR, et al. Bevel direction and postdural puncture headache: a meta-analysis. Neurologist. 2006;12(4):224–228.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lambert DH, Hurley RJ, Hertwig L, Datta S. Role of needle gauge and tip configuration in the production of lumbar puncture headache. Reg Anesth. 1997;22(1):66–72.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vallejo MC, Mandell GL, Sabo DP, Ramanathan S. Postdural puncture headache: a randomized comparison of five spinal needles in obstetric patients. Anesth Analg. 2000;91(4):916–920.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Halpern S, Preston R. Postdural puncture headache and spinal needle design. Metaanalyses. Anesthesiology. 1994;81(6):1376–1383.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ready LB, Cuplin S, Haschke RH, Nessly M. Spinal needle determinants of rate of transdural fluid leak. Anesth Analg. 1989;69(4):457–460.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kitahara T, Kuri S, Yoshida J. The spread of drugs used for spinal anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 1956;17(1):205–208.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Norris MC. Height, weight, and the spread of subarachnoid hyperbaric bupivacaine in the term parturient. Anesth Analg. 1988;67(6):555–558.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    DeSimone CA, Norris MC, Leighton B, et al. Spinal anesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine for cesarean delivery: a comparison of two doses (abstract). Anesthesiology. 1988;69:670.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hartwell BL, Aglio LS, Hauch MA, Datta S. Vertebral column length and spread of hyperbaric subarachnoid bupivacaine in the term parturient. Reg Anesth. 1991;16(1):17–19.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sprague DH. Effects of position and uterine displacement on spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Anesthesiology. 1976;44(2):164–166.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Abouleish EI. Epinephrine improves the quality of spinal hyperbaric bupivacaine for cesarean section. Anesth Analg. 1987;66(5):395–400.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Abouleish E, Rawal N, Tobon-Randall B, et al. A clinical and laboratory study to compare the addition of 0.2 mg of morphine, 0.2 mg of epinephrine, or their combination to hyperbaric bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia in cesarean section. Anesth Analg. 1993;77(3):457–462.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Moore CH, Wilhite A, Pan PH, Blass NH. The addition of epinephrine to subarachnoid administered hyperbaric bupivacaine with fentanyl for cesarean delivery: the effect on onset time. Reg Anesth. 1992;17(4):202–204.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Courtney M, Bader AM, Hartwell BL, et al. Perioperative analgesia with subarachnoid sufentanil-bupivacaine (abstract). Anesthesiology. 1988;1990(73):994.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Chadwick HS, Ready LB. Intrathecal and epidural morphine sulfate for post-cesarean analgesia – a clinical comparison. Anesthesiology. 1988;68(6):925–929.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Palmer CM, Emerson S, Volgoropolous D, Alves D. Dose–response relationship of intrathecal morphine for postcesarean analgesia. Anesthesiology. 1999;90(2):437–444.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gould DB, Singer SB, Smeltzer JS. Dose–response of subarachnoid butorphanol analgesia concurrent with bupivacaine for cesarean delivery. Reg Anesth. 1991;14:46.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kafle SK. Intrathecal meperidine for elective caesarean section: a comparison with lidocaine. Can J Anaesth. 1993;40(8):718–721.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Yu SC, Ngan Kee WD, Kwan AS. Addition of meperidine to bupivacaine for spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. Br J Anaesth. 2002;88(3):379–383.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gautier P, De Kock M, Huberty L, Demir T, Izydorczic M, Vanderick B. Comparison of the effects of intrathecal ropivacaine, levobupivacaine, and bupivacaine for caesarean section. Br J Anaesth. 2003;91(5):684–689.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bonica JJ, Akamatsu TJ, Berges PU, Morikawa K, Kennedy WF, Jr. Circulatory effects of peridural block. II. Effects of epinephrine. Anesthesiology. 1971;34(6):514–522.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Datta S, Alper MH, Ostheimer GW, Brown WU, Jr., Weiss JB. Effects of maternal position on epidural anesthesia for cesarean section, acid–base status, and bupivacaine concentrations at delivery. Anesthesiology. 1979;50(3):205–209.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chan VW, Morley-Forster PK, Vosu HA. Temperature changes and shivering after epidural anesthesia for cesarean section. Reg Anesth. 1989;14(1):48–52.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shehabi Y, Gatt S, Buckman T, Isert P. Effect of adrenaline, fentanyl and warming of injectate on shivering following extradural analgesia in labour. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1990;18(1):31–37.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sevarino FB, Johnson MD, Lema MJ, Datta S, Ostheimer GW, Naulty JS. The effect of epidural sufentanil on shivering and body temperature in the parturient. Anesth Analg. 1989;68(4):530–533.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bader AM, Tsen LC, Camann WR, Nephew E, Datta S. Clinical effects and maternal and fetal plasma concentrations of 0.5% epidural levobupivacaine versus bupivacaine for cesarean delivery. Anesthesiology. 1999;90(6):1596–1601.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Alahuhta S, Rasanen J, Jouppila P, et al. The effects of epidural ropivacaine and bupivacaine for cesarean section on uteroplacental and fetal circulation. Anesthesiology. 1995;83(1):23–32.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Datta S, Camann W, Bader A, VanderBurgh L. Clinical effects and maternal and fetal plasma concentrations of epidural ropivacaine versus bupivacaine for cesarean section. Anesthesiology. 1995;82(6):1346–1352.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Christelis N, Harrad J, Howell PR. A comparison of epidural ropivacaine 0.75% and bupivacaine 0.5% with fentanyl for elective caesarean section. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2005;14(3):212–218.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kampe S, Tausch B, Paul M, et al. Epidural block with ropivacaine and bupivacaine for elective caesarean section: maternal cardiovascular parameters, comfort and neonatal well-being. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004;20(1):7–12.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gaffud MP, Bansal P, Lawton C, Velasquez N, Watson WA. Surgical analgesia for cesarean delivery with epidural bupivacaine and fentanyl. Anesthesiology. 1986;65(3):331–334.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Camann WR, Hartigan PM, Gilbertson LI, Johnson MD, Datta S. Chloroprocaine antagonism of epidural opioid analgesia: a receptor-specific phenomenon? Anesthesiology. 1990;73(5):860–863.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fuller JG, McMorland GH, Douglas MJ, Palmer L. Epidural morphine for analgesia after caesarean section: a report of 4880 patients. Can J Anaesth. 1990;37(6):636–640.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Albright GA. Cardiac arrest following regional anesthesia with etidocaine or bupivacaine. Anesthesiology. 1979;51(4):285–287.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Morishima HO, Pedersen H, Finster M, Feldman HS, Covino BG. Etidocaine toxicity in the adult, newborn, and fetal sheep. Anesthesiology. 1983;58(4):342–346.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Morishima HO, Pedersen H, Finster M, et al. Is bupivacaine more cardiotoxic than lidocaine? (abstract). Anesthesiology. 1983;59:409.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Morishima HO, Pedersen H, Finster M, et al. Bupivacaine toxicity in pregnant and nonpregnant ewes. Anesthesiology. 1985;63(2):134–139.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Moller RA, Datta S, Fox J, et al. Progesterone induced increase in cardiac sensitivity to bupivacaine. Anesthesiology. 1988;69:A675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Moller RA, Datta S, Strichartz GR. Beta-estradiol acutely potentiates the depression of cardiac excitability by lidocaine and bupivacaine. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1999;34(5):718–727.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Clarkson CW, Hondeghem LM. Mechanism for bupivacaine depression of cardiac conduction: fast block of sodium channels during the action potential with slow recovery from block during diastole. Anesthesiology. 1985;62(4):396–405.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kasten GW, Martin ST. Successful cardiovascular resuscitation after massive intravenous bupivacaine overdosage in anesthetized dogs. Anesth Analg. 1985;64(5):491–497.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Corman SL, Skledar SJ. Use of lipid emulsion to reverse local anesthetic-induced toxicity. Ann Pharmacother. 2007;41(11):1873–1877.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ludot H, Tharin JY, Belouadah M, Mazoit JX, Malinovsky JM. Successful resuscitation after ropivacaine and lidocaine-induced ventricular arrhythmia following posterior lumbar plexus block in a child. Anesth Analg. 2008;106(5):1572–1574, table of contents.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rawal N, Schollin J, Wesstrom G. Epidural versus combined spinal epidural block for cesarean section. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1988;32(1):61–66.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Davies SJ, Paech MJ, Welch H, Evans SF, Pavy TJ. Maternal experience during epidural or combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for cesarean section: a prospective, randomized trial. Anesth Analg. 1997;85(3):607–613.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Horstman DJ, Riley ET, Carvalho B. A randomized trial of maximum cephalad sensory blockade with single-shot spinal compared with combined spinal-epidural techniques for cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg. 2009;108(1):240–245.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Vercauteren MP, Coppejans HC, Hoffmann VL, Saldien V, Adriaensen HA. Small-dose hyperbaric versus plain bupivacaine during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Anesth Analg. 1998;86(5):989–993.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Roofthooft E, Van de Velde M. Low-dose spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section to prevent spinal-induced hypotension. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2008;21(3):259–262.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hamlyn EL, Douglass CA, Plaat F, Crowhurst JA, Stocks GM. Low-dose sequential combined spinal-epidural: an anaesthetic technique for caesarean section in patients with significant cardiac disease. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2005;14(4):355–361.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Landau R, Giraud R, Morales M, Kern C, Trindade P. Sequential combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for cesarean section in a woman with a double-outlet right ventricle. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2004;48(7):922–926.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mendelson CL. The aspiration of stomach contents into the lungs during obstetric anaesthesia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1946;52:191–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Roberts RB, Shirley MA. Reducing the risk of acid aspiration during cesarean section. Anesth Analg. 1974;53(6):859–868.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gibbs CP, Schwartz DJ, Wynne JW, Hodd CI, Kuck EJ. Antacid pulmonary aspiration in the dog. Anesthesiology. 1979;51(5):380–385.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dewan DM, Floyd HM, Thistlewood JM, Bogard TD, Spielman FJ. Sodium citrate pretreatment in elective cesarean section patients. Anesth Analg. 1985;64(1):34–37.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Okasha AS, Motaweh MM, Bali A. Cimetidine–antacid combination as premedication for elective caesarean section. Can Anaesth Soc J. 1983;30(6):593–597.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Howard FA, Sharp DS. Effect of metoclopramide on gastric emptying during labour. Br Med J. 1973;1(5851):446–448.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Harrington RA, Hamilton CW, Brogden RN, Linkewich JA, Romankiewicz JA, Heel RC. Metoclopramide. An updated review of its pharmacological properties and clinical use. Drugs. 1983;25(5):451–494.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Norris MC, Dewan DM. Preoxygenation for cesarean section: a comparison of two techniques. Anesthesiology. 1985;62(6):827–829.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Norris MC, Kirkland MR, Torjman MC, Goldberg ME. Denitrogenation in pregnancy. Can J Anaesth. 1989;36(5):523–525.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Baraka AS, Hanna MT, Jabbour SI, et al. Preoxygenation of pregnant and nonpregnant women in the head-up versus supine position. Anesth Analg. 1992;75(5):757–759.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Davis JM, Weeks S, Crone LA, Pavin E. Difficult intubation in the parturient. Can J Anaesth. 1989;36:668–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Cormack RS, Lehane J. Difficult tracheal intubation in obstetrics. Anaesthesia. 1984;39(11):1105–1111.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Samsoon GL, Young JR. Difficult tracheal intubation: a retrospective study. Anaesthesia. 1987;42(5):487–490.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hawkins JL, Koonin LM, Palmer SK, Gibbs CP. Anesthesia-related deaths during obstetric delivery in the United States, 1979–1990. Anesthesiology. 1997;86(2):277–284.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Rahman K, Jenkins JG. Failed tracheal intubation in obstetrics: no more frequent but still managed badly. Anaesthesia. 2005;60(2):168–171.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mhyre JM, Riesner MN, Polley LS, Naughton NN. A series of anesthesia-related maternal deaths in Michigan, 1985–2003. Anesthesiology. 2007;106(6):1096–1104.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kuczkowski KM, Reisner LS, Benumof JL. Airway problems and new solutions for the obstetric patient. J Clin Anesth. 2003;15(7):552–563.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Pilkington S, Carli F, Dakin MJ, et al. Increase in Mallampati score during pregnancy. Br J Anaesth. 1995;74(6):638–642.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kodali BS, Chandrasekhar S, Bulich LN, Topulos GP, Datta S. Airway changes during labor and delivery. Anesthesiology. 2008;108(3):357–362.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rocke DA, Murray WB, Rout CC, Gouws E. Relative risk analysis of factors associated with difficult intubation in obstetric anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 1992;77(1):67–73.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bailey SG, Kitching AJ. The laryngeal mask airway in failed obstetric tracheal intubation. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2005;14(3):270–271.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Minville V, N’Guyen L, Coustet B, Fourcade O, Samii K. Difficult airway in obstetric using Ilma-Fastrach. Anesth Analg. 2004;99(6):1873.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bullingham A. Use of the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway for airway maintenance during emergency caesarean section after failed intubation. Br J Anaesth. 2004;92(6):903, author reply 904.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Godley M, Reddy AR. Use of LMA for awake intubation for caesarean section. Can J Anaesth. 1996;43(3):299–302.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Patel RG. Percutaneous transtracheal jet ventilation: a safe, quick, and temporary way to provide oxygenation and ventilation when conventional methods are unsuccessful. Chest. 1999;116(6):1689–1694.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Levinson G, Shnider SM, DeLorimier AA, Steffenson JL. Effects of maternal hyperventilation on uterine blood flow and fetal oxygenation and acid–base status. Anesthesiology. 1974;40(4):340–347.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Shankar KB, Moseley H, Kumar Y, Vemula V. Arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide tension difference during caesarean section anaesthesia. Anaesthesia. 1986;41(7):698–702.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kosaka Y, Takahashi T, Mark LC. Intravenous thiobarbiturate anesthesia for cesarean section. Anesthesiology. 1969;31(6):489–506.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Gin T, O’Meara ME, Kan AF, Leung RK, Tan P, Yau G. Plasma catecholamines and neonatal condition after induction of anaesthesia with propofol or thiopentone at caesarean section. Br J Anaesth. 1993;70(3):311–316.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Celleno D, Capogna G, Emanuelli M, et al. Which induction drug for cesarean section? A comparison of thiopental sodium, propofol, and midazolam. J Clin Anesth. 1993;5(4):284–288.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Singh SI, Brooks C, Dobkowski W. General anesthesia using remifentanil for cesarean delivery in a parturient with Marfan’s syndrome. Can J Anaesth. 2008;55(8):526–531.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Orme RM, Grange CS, Ainsworth QP, Grebenik CR. General anaesthesia using remifentanil for caesarean section in parturients with critical aortic stenosis: a series of four cases. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2004;13(3):183–187.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Bilehjani E, Kianfar AA, Toofan M, Fakhari S. Anesthesia with etomidate and remifentanil for cesarean section in a patient with severe peripartum cardiomyopathy – a case report. Middle East J Anesthesiol. 2008;19(5):1141–1149.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Weissman DB, Ehrenwerth J. Prolonged neuromuscular blockade in a parturient associated with succinylcholine. Anesth Analg. 1983;62(4):444–446.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Roe RB. The effect of suxamethonium on intragastric pressure. Anaesthesia. 1962;17:179–181.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Crawford JS. Suxamethonium muscle pains and pregnancy. Br J Anaesth. 1971;43(7):677–680.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Miller RD, Way WL. Inhibition of succinylcholine-induced increased intragastric pressure by nondepolarizing muscle relaxants and lidocaine. Anesthesiology. 1971;34(2):185–188.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Cotton BR, Smith G. The lower oesophageal sphincter and anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth. 1984;56(1):37–46.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Fodale V, Santamaria LB. Laudanosine, an atracurium and cisatracurium metabolite. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2002;19(7):466–473.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Matthews P, Dann WL, Cartwright DP, Taylor E. Inspired oxygen concentration during general anaesthesia for caesarean section. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1989;6(4):295–301.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Ngan Kee WD, Khaw KS, Ma KC, Wong AS, Lee BB. Randomized, double-blind comparison of different inspired oxygen fractions during general anaesthesia for caesarean section. Br J Anaesth. 2002;89(4):556–561.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Mankowitz E, Brock-Utne JG, Downing JW. Nitrous oxide elimination by the newborn. Anaesthesia. 1981;36(11):1014–1016.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Parpaglioni R, Capogna G, Celleno D, Fusco P. Intraoperative fetal oxygen saturation during caesarean section: general anaesthesia using sevoflurane with either 100% oxygen or 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2002;19(2):115–118.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Chin KJ, Yeo SW. Bispectral index values at sevoflurane concentrations of 1% and 1.5% in lower segment cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg. 2004;98(4):1140–1144, table of contents.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Gambling DR, Sharma SK, White PF, Van Beveren T, Bala AS, Gouldson R. Use of sevoflurane during elective cesarean birth: a comparison with isoflurane and spinal anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 1995;81(1):90–95.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Aydin GB, Coskun F, Sahin A, Aypar U. Influence of sevoflurane and desflurane on neurological and adaptive capacity scores in newborns. Saudi Med J. 2008;29(6):841–846.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Ittichaikulthol W, Sriswasdi S, Prachanpanich N, Watcharotayangul J, Seangrung R, Sithamwilai W. Bispectral index in assessment of 3% and 4.5% desflurane in 50% N2O for caesarean section. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90(8):1546–1550.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Crawford JS, James FM, 3rd, Davies P, Crawley M. A further study of general anaesthesia for caesarean section. Br J Anaesth. 1976;48(7):661–667.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Datta S, Ostheimer GW, Weiss JB, Brown WU, Jr., Alper MH. Neonatal effect of prolonged anesthetic induction for cesarean section. Obstet Gynecol. 1981;58(3):331–335.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Bader AM, Datta S, Arthur GR, Benvenuti E, Courtney M, Hauch M. Maternal and fetal catecholamines and uterine incision-to-delivery interval during elective cesarean. Obstet Gynecol. 1990;75(4):600–603.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Warren TM, Datta S, Ostheimer GW, Naulty JS, Weiss JB, Morrison JA. Comparison of the maternal and neonatal effects of halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane for cesarean delivery. Anesth Analg. 1983;62(5):516–520.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Malinow AM, Naulty JS, Hunt CO, Datta S, Ostheimer GW. Precordial ultrasonic monitoring during cesarean delivery. Anesthesiology. 1987;66(6):816–819.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Fong J, Gadalla F, Pierri MK, Druzin M. Are Doppler-detected venous emboli during cesarean section air emboli? Anesth Analg. 1990;71(3):254–257.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Vartikar JV, Johnson MD, Datta S. Precordial Doppler monitoring and pulse oximetry during cesarean delivery: detection of venous air embolism. Reg Anesth. 1989;14(3):145–148.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Handler JS, Bromage PR. Venous air embolism during cesarean delivery. Reg Anesth. 1990;15(4):170–173.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Harrison DM, Sinatra R, Morgese L, Chung JH. Epidural narcotic and patient-controlled analgesia for post-cesarean section pain relief. Anesthesiology. 1988;68(3):454–457.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Sinatra RS, Lodge K, Sibert K, et al. A comparison of morphine, meperidine, and oxymorphone as utilized in patient-controlled analgesia following cesarean delivery. Anesthesiology. 1989;70(4):585–590.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Wittels B, Scott DT, Sinatra RS. Exogenous opioids in human breast milk and acute neonatal neurobehavior: a preliminary study. Anesthesiology. 1990;73(5):864–869.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Kato R, Shimamoto H, Terui K, Yokota K, Miyao H. Delayed respiratory depression associated with 0.15 mg intrathecal morphine for cesarean section: a review of 1915 cases. J Anesth. 2008;22(2):112–116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Bromage PR. Epidural Analgesia. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co; 1978Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Malan TP, Johnson MO. J Clin Anesth. 1988;1:104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Abouleish E. The placenta and placental transfer of drugs of term. In: Pain Control in Obstetrics. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; 1977:4.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Archer GW, Marx GP. Arterial oxygen tension during apnoea in parturient women. Br J Anaesth. 1974;46:358.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanjay Datta
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bhavani Shankar Kodali
    • 1
    • 2
  • Scott Segal
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Brigham & Women’s HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations