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Selective Nerve Root Stimulation: Facilitating the Cephalocaudal “Retrograde” Method of Electrode Insertion

  • Kenneth M. Alò
Chapter

Abstract

Selective nerve root stimulation (SNRS) as a method was first presented in 1998 13 and was published in 1999.4, 5 Despite advances at that time in dual electrode technology and patient controlled programming, “anterograde” spinal cord stimulators (SCSs) were unable to consistently produce and maintain paresthesia in the neck, pelvic, and foot dermatomes.6, 7 As well, some individual lower extremity dermatomes lacked SCS paresthesia coverage. Thus, selective, cephalocaudal, “retrograde” electrode placement was developed to improve capture in these targets.4 Safety concerns limited cervical in vivo application;3, 5 however, lumbosacral placement gained interest in the evaluation of many difficult-to-treat conditions.

Keywords

Spina Bifida Interstitial Cystitis Spinal Cord Stimulator Electrode Insertion Maximal Tolerable Intensity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Houston Texas Pain Management, PAHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Section of Neuro-Cardiology, Institute of Cardiology and Vascular MedicineMonterrey Technical UniversityMonterreyMexico

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