Advertisement

EMG/SSEP Monitoring During Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord Stimulation

  • Erich O. Richter
  • Marina V. Abramova
  • Kenneth M. Alò
Chapter

Abstract

Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring has become a routine procedure in complex spine surgery. Somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP) recording has been advocated to monitor the functional integrity of the nervous system during surgical manipulation.

Keywords

Spinal Cord Stimulation Motor Unit Action Potential Threshold Stimulus Applied Stimulation SSEP Monitoring 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Mostegl A, Bauer R. The application of somatosensory-evoked potentials in orthopedic spine surgery. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 1984;103(3):179–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Spielholz NI, Benjamin MV, Engler GL, Ransohoff J. Somatosensory evoked potentials during decompression and stabilization of the spine. Methods and findings. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1979;4(6):500–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ryan TP, Britt RH. Spinal and cortical somatosensory evoked potential monitoring during corrective spinal surgery with 108 patients. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1986;11(4):352–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Perlik SJ, VanEgeren R, Fisher MA. Somatosensory evoked potential surgical monitoring. Observations during combined isoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1992;17(3):273–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ryu H, Uemura K. Origins of the short latency somatosensory evoked potentials in cat–with special reference to the sensory relay nuclei. Exp Neurol. 1988;102(2):177–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ben-David B, Haller G, Taylor P. Anterior spinal fusion complicated by paraplegia. A case report of a false negative somatosensory-evoked potential. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1987;12:536–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ben-David B, Taylor PD, Haller GS. Posterior spinal fusion complicated by posterior column injury. A case report of a false-negative wake-up test. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1987;12:540–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wagner W, Peghini-Halbig L, Maurer JC, Perneczky A. Intraoperative SEP monitoring in neurosurgery around the brain stem and cervical spinal cord: differential recording of subcortical components. J Neurosurg. 1994;81:213–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dunne JW, Silbert PL, Wren M. A prospective study of acute radiculopathy after scoliosis surgery. Clin Exp Neurol. 1991;28:180–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Meyer PR Jr, Cotler HB, Gireesan GT. Operative neurological complications resulting from thoracic and lumbar spine internal fixation. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1988;237:125–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Toleikis JR, Carlvin AO, Shapiro DE, Schafer MF. The use of dermatomal evoked responses during surgical procedures that use intrapedicular fixation of the lumbosacral spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1993;18(16):2401–2407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Holland NR, Kostuik JP. Continuous electromyographic monitoring to detect nerve root injury during thoracolumbar scoliosis surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1997;22(21):2547–2550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Owen JH, Padberg AM, Spahr-Holland L, Bridwell KH, Keppler L, Steffee AD. Clinical correlation between degenerative spine disease and dermatomal somatosensory-evoked potentials in humans. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1991;16(6 suppl):S201–S205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rodriquez AA, Kanis L, Rodriquez AA, Lane D. Somatosensory evoked potentials from dermatomal stimulation as an indicator of L5 and S1 radiculopathy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1987;68(6):366–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bose B, Wierzbowski LR, Sestokas AK. Neurophysiologic monitoring of spinal nerve root function during instrumented posterior lumbar spine surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27(13):1444–1450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weiss DS. Spinal cord and nerve root monitoring during surgical treatment of lumbar stenosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2001;384:82–100. Review.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Beatty RM, McGuire P, Moroney JM, Holladay FP. Continuous intraoperative electromyographic recording during spinal surgery. J Neurosurg. 1995;82(3):401–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Owen JH, Kostuik JP, Gornet M, et al. The use of mechanically elicited electromyograms to protect nerve roots during surgery for spinal degeneration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994;19(15):1704–1710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kumar K et al. Spinal cord stimulation: placement of surgical leads via laminotomy-techniques and benefits (Alo KM. EMG/SSEP during SCS implant surgery). In: Krames E, Peckham PH, Rezai AR, eds. Neuromodulation. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2009:1008–1009.Google Scholar
  20. Selected ReadingGoogle Scholar
  21. Kleissen RF, Buurke JH, Harlaar J, Zilvold G. Electromyography in the biomechanical analysis of human movement and its clinical application. Gait Posture. 1998;8(2):143–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Melzack R, Wall PD. Pain mechanisms: a new theory. Science. 1965;150(699):971–979. Review.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shealy CN, Mortimer JT, Reswick JB. Electrical inhibition of pain by stimulation of the dorsal columns: preliminary clinical report. Anesth Analg. 1967;46(4):489–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Aló KM, Holsheimer J. New trends in neuromodulation for the management of neuropathic pain. Neurosurgery. 2002; 50(4):690-703; discussion 703–704. Review.Google Scholar
  25. Law J. Results of treatment for pain by percutaneous multicontact stimulation of the spinal cord. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Pain Society, Chicago, IL; November 11–13, 1983.Google Scholar
  26. North RB, Fischell TA, Long DM. Chronic stimulation via percutaneously inserted epidural electrodes. Neurosurgery. 1977;1:215–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Villavicencio AT, Leveque JC, Rubin L, Bulsara K, Gorecki JP. Laminectomy versus percutaneous electrode placement for spinal cord stimulation. Neurosurgery. 2000;46(2):399–405; discussion 405–406.Google Scholar
  28. Kumar K, Taylor RS, Jacques L, Eldabe S, Meglio M, Molet J, Thomson S, O’Callaghan J, Eisenberg E, Milbouw G, Buchser E, Fortini G, Richardson J, North RB. The effects of spinal cord stimulation in neuropathic pain are sustained: a 24-month follow-up of the prospective randomized controlled multicenter trial of the effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation. Neurosurgery. 2008;63(4):762–770; discussion 770.Google Scholar
  29. Kumar K, Taylor RS, Jacques L, Eldabe S, Meglio M, Molet J, Thomson S, O’Callaghan J, Eisenberg E, Milbouw G, Buchser E, Fortini G, Richardson J, North RB. Spinal cord stimulation versus conventional medical management for neuropathic pain: A multicentre randomized controlled trial in patients with failed back surgery syndrome. Pain. 2007;132(1–2):179–188.Google Scholar
  30. North RB, Kidd D, Shipley J, Taylor RS. Spinal cord stimulation versus reoperation for failed back surgery syndrome: a cost effectiveness and cost utility analysis based on a randomized, controlled trial. Neurosurgery. 2007;61(2):361–368; discussion 368-369. Erratum in: Neurosurgery. 2009;64(4):601.Google Scholar
  31. Taylor RJ, Taylor RS. Spinal cord stimulation for failed back surgery syndrome: a decision-analytic model and cost-effectiveness analysis. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2005 summer;21(3):351–358.Google Scholar
  32. Kumar K, Malik S, Demeria D. Treatment of chronic pain with spinal cord stimulation versus alternative therapies: cost-effectiveness analysis. Neurosurgery. 2002;51(1):106–115; discussion 115–116.Google Scholar
  33. Taylor RS. Spinal cord stimulation in complex regional pain syndrome and refractory neuropathic back and leg pain/failed back surgery syndrome: results of a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006;31(4 suppl):S13–S19. Review.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kumar K, Hunter G, Demeria D. Spinal cord stimulation in treatment of chronic benign pain: challenges in treatment planning and present status, a 22-year experience. Neurosurgery. 2006;58(3):481–496; discussion 481–496.Google Scholar
  35. Taylor RS, Van Buyten JP, Buchser E. Spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome: a systematic review of the clinical and cost-effectiveness literature and assessment of prognostic factors. Eur J Pain. 2006;10(2):91–101. Review.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Spiegelmann R, Friedman WA. Spinal cord stimulation: a contemporary series. Neurosurgery. 1991;28(1):65-70; discussion 70–71. Review.Google Scholar
  37. Racz GB, McCarron RF, Talboys P. Percutaneous dorsal column stimulator for chronic pain control. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1989;14(1):1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Richardson J. Facilitation of spinal cord stimulator implantation with epidural analgesia. Pain. 1996;65(2-3):277–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Boswell MV, Iacono RP, Guthkelch AN. Sites of action of subarachnoid lidocaine and tetracaine: observations with evoked potential monitoring during spinal cord stimulator implantation. Reg Anesth. 1992;17(1):37–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Lang E, Krainick JU, Gerbershagen HU. Spinal cord transmission of impulses during high spinal anesthesia as measured by cortical evoked potentials. Anesth Analg. 1989;69(1):15–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Holsheimer J, Barolat G, Struijk JJ, He J. Significance of the spinal cord position in spinal cord stimulation. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 1995;64:119–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Holsheimer J, den Boer JA, Struijk JJ, Rozeboom AR. MR assessment of the normal position of the spinal cord in the spinal canal. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1994;15(5):951–959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Washburn S, Monroe CD, Cameron T. A review of articles published on spinal cord stimulation treatment for chronic pain: 1981–2008. NANS meeting, Las Vegas; December 4–7, 2008.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erich O. Richter
  • Marina V. Abramova
  • Kenneth M. Alò
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Houston Texas Pain Management, PAHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Section of Neuro-Cardiology, Institute of Cardiology and Vascular MedicineMonterrey Technical UniversityMonterreyMexico

Personalised recommendations