Against the Tide: Making Waves and Breaking Silences

  • Erika Apfelbaum
Part of the Path in Psychology book series (PATH)


In the introduction to her book of biographies (Vies politiques [Men in Dark Times], 1974), Hannah Arendt points out that as we question certain men and women about the fashion in which each has lived their life and evolved on the world’s stage, we take the measure of a whole epoch and we illuminate what is common for everyone. The following narrative is directly in line with Arendt’s observation, since my life has unfolded and been closely connected with a significant period in the development of social psychology. Accordingly, my story may provide some insights into the socio-cultural and historical changes in the discipline during the period in which I have been both its witness and an active participant/contributor.


Social Psychology Experimental Social Psychology Transitional Justice Intergroup Relation Subordinate Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Altounian, J. (1990). Ouvrez-moi seulement les chemins d’Arménie Un génocide aux déserts de l’inconscient. Paris: Les belles Lettres.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous. (1968). Le livre Noir des Journées de Mai. Paris: Seuil.Google Scholar
  3. Apfelbaum, E. (1974). On conflicts and bargaining. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 7. pp. 103–159). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  4. Apfelbaum, E., & Lubek, I. (1976). Resolution or revolution ? The theory of conflicts in question. In L. Strickland, F. E. Aboud, & K. J. Gergen (Eds.), Social Psychology in Transition (pp. 71–95). New York: Plenum press.Google Scholar
  5. Apfelbaum, E., & Personnaz, B. (1974–75). Inégalité, contestation et négociation: Une expérience “pour voir”. Bulletin de Psychologie, 28(16–17), 778–783.Google Scholar
  6. Apfelbaum, E., & Personnaz, B. (1977–78). Résistances dans les groupes subordonnés. Conduites d’opposition et rupture de contrat. Bulletin de Psychologie, 31(3–6), 270–276.Google Scholar
  7. Apfelbaum, E. (1979). Relations of domination and Movements of liberation: an analysis of power between groups. In W. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 188–204). Monterey: Cole. (Reprinted in Feminism and Psychology, 1999, 3, 267–273.)Google Scholar
  8. Apfelbaum, E. (1981). Forgetting the past. Partisan Review, 48(4), 608–617.Google Scholar
  9. Apfelbaum, E. (1982). La bonne conscience n’est plus ce qu’elle était. Les nouveaux cahiers, 69, 16–24.Google Scholar
  10. Apfelbaum, E., & Lubek, I. (1982). Augustin Hamon aux origines de la psychologie sociale française. Recherches de psychologie sociale. pp. 35–48.Google Scholar
  11. Apfelbaum, E. (1983). Mémoire à éclipses et mémoire volée. Traces, 8–9, 281–288.Google Scholar
  12. Apfelbaum, E., & Vasquez, A. (1984). Les réalités changeantes de l’identité. Peuples méditerranéens, 24, 83–100.Google Scholar
  13. Apfelbaum, E. (1986). Prolegomena for a history of social psychology: some hypotheses for its emergence in the 20th century and its raison d’être. In K. Larsen (Ed.), Dialectics and ideology in psychology (pp. 3–13). New York: Ablex.Google Scholar
  14. Apfelbaum, E. (1990). Désordre individuel et désordre social Hermès, 6–7, 35–42.Google Scholar
  15. Apfelbaum, E. (1992). Some teachings from the history of social psychology. Canadian psychology, 33, 529–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Apfelbaum, E. (1993a). Norwegian and French women in high leadership positions: The importance of cultural contexts upon gendered relations. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17, 409–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Apfelbaum, E. (1993b). Quelques leçons d’une histoire de la psychologie sociale. Sociétés Contemporaine, 13, 13–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Apfelbaum, E. (1997). ‘Le monde selon la psychologie sociale’. Colloque “Regards de la psychologie. Laboratoire de Psychologie sociale de l’EHESS et l’ADRIPS. 15–16 Mai 1997. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  19. Apfelbaum, E. (1999). Twenty years later. Feminism and Psychology, 9(3), 300–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Apfelbaum, E. (2000a). The impact of culture in the face of genocide. Struggling between a silenced home culture and a foreign host culture. In C. Squire (Ed.), Culture in psychology Ch. 11, pp. 163–174./London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Apfelbaum, E. (2000b). And now what, after such tribulations. Memory and dislocation in the era of uprooting. American Psychologist, 55, 1008–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Apfelbaum, E. (2001). Popular culture: the stubborn particulars of asymmetrical gender relations. Paper presented at the symposium on exploring culture in psychology, British Psychological Association, Glaskow.Google Scholar
  23. Apfelbaum, E. (2002). Restoring lives shattered by collective violence. In Chris van der Merwe & Rolf Wolfswinkel (Eds.), Telling wounds. Narrative, trauma and memory. Working through the SA armed conflicts of the 20th century (pp. 9–17). Capetown, SA: University of Capetown.Google Scholar
  24. Arendt, H. (1976/1964). La tradition cachée. Paris: BourgeoisGoogle Scholar
  25. Arendt, Hannah (1964/1987). Seule demeure la langue maternelle. In H. Arendt (Ed.), La tradition cachée Paris (pp. 221–256). Christian Bourgeois.Google Scholar
  26. Arendt, H. (1972). Préface in HannahArendt(Ed.), La crise de la culture (Between past and future). (pp. 11–27). Paris: Gallimard/Folio.Google Scholar
  27. Arendt, H. (1974). Vies politiques. (Men in dark times). Paris: Gallimard/Tel. (First published in 1971.)Google Scholar
  28. Austin, W., Worchel, S. (Eds.) (1979). The social psychology of intergroup relations. Monterey: Cole.Google Scholar
  29. Bauman, Z. (1989). Modernity and the Holocaust. New York: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Berkowitz, L. (Ed.) (1968). Advances in experimental social psychology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  31. Billig, M. (1976). Social psychology and intergroup relations. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  32. Bruno, P., Plon, M.,Pêcheux, M. (1973). La psychologie sociale: une utopie en crise. La Nouvelle Critique, 62, 72–78; 64, 21–28Google Scholar
  33. Brown, J. F. (1936). Psychology and the Social Order. New York: MacGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  34. Cherry, F. (1999). The convergence of power, history and memory in the work of Erika Apfelbaum. Feminism and Psychology, 9(3). 273–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Deconchy, J. P. (2000). Interview of 19/04: 2000. In S. Delouvée (Ed.) Le laboratoire de Psychologie sociale (pp. 60). Master’s degree Unpublished.Google Scholar
  36. Deutsch, M. (1976). On cursing the darkness versus lighting a candle. In L. Strickland, F. E. Aboud, & K. J. Gergen (Eds), Social Psychology in Transition (pp. 95–101). New York: Plenum press.Google Scholar
  37. Duby (1987). Le plaisir de l’historien. In Pierre Nora (Ed.), Essais d’ego-histoire (pp. 109–138). Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
  38. Elias, N. (1950/1987). La société des individus. Paris: Fayard.Google Scholar
  39. Ferrat, J. (2000). Radio Interview.Google Scholar
  40. Fine, M. Roberts, R. (1999). On Erika Apfelbaum: Public intellectual. Feminism and Psychology, 9(3), 261–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Foucault, M. (1976). La volonté de savoir. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
  42. Furet, François. (1995). Le passé d’une illusion. Essai sur l’idée communiste au XXème siècle. Paris: Calmann Lévy.Google Scholar
  43. Guillaumin, C. (1995). The practice of power and belief in Nature. Part II. The naturalist discourse. In: C. Guillaumin (Ed.) Racism, sexism, power and ideology (pp. 211–232). London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gurin P. (1999). The power of Apfelbaum’s analysis. Feminism and Psychology, 9(3), 278–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gusdorf, G. (1980). Conditions and limits of autobiography. In J. Olney (Ed.), Autobiography: Essays theoretical and critical (pp. 28–48). Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Halbwachs, M. (1924/1952). Les cadres sociaux de la mémoire (The framework for memory). Paris: P.U.F.Google Scholar
  47. Hoffman, E. (1989). Lost in translation. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  48. Hurtado, A. (1999). Re-viewing Erika Apfelbaum. Feminism and Psychology, 9(3), 282–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Israel, J.Tajfel, H. (1972). The context of social psychology: A critical assessment. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  50. Juliet, C. (1995). Lambeaux. Paris: POL.Google Scholar
  51. Kandel, L. (1999). I remember the 1970s. Feminism and Psychology, 9(3), 286–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kertesz, I. (1996). Kaddish pour un enfant qui ne naîtra pas. Paris: Actes Sud.Google Scholar
  53. Klemperer, V. (2000). Mes soldats de papier. Journal 1933–1941. Paris: Seuil. (First published in German 1995.)Google Scholar
  54. Kren, G.Rappoport, L. (1980). The Holocaust and the crisis of human behavior. New York: Holmes and Meier.Google Scholar
  55. Lagache, D. J. (1969). L’unité de la psychologie. Paris: Presses universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  56. Laub, D. (1995). Truth and testimony: The process and the struggle. In C. Caruth (Ed), Trauma: Explorations in memory (pp.13–60). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Lubek, I.Apfelbaum, E. (1987). Neo-behaviorism and the “Garcia effect”: A “social psychology of science” approach to the history of a paradigm clash in psychology. In M. Ash &W. Woodward (Eds.), Psychology in the twentieth century thought and society (pp. 59–91). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Makine, A. (1995). Le testament français. Paris: Mercure de France.Google Scholar
  59. Mauss, M. (1969). Oeuvres. Paris: P.U.F.Google Scholar
  60. Marié, M. (1989). Les terres et les mots. Paris: Meridiens Klinsieck.Google Scholar
  61. Mendras, H. (1995). Comment devenir sociologue. Souvenirs d’un vieux mandarin. Paris: Hubert Nyssen.Google Scholar
  62. Minow, M. (1998). Between Vengeance and Forgiveness. Facing history after genocide and mass violence. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  63. Moscovici, S. (1970). Préface. In D. Jodelet (Ed.), Psychologie sociale en mouvement. Paris: PUF.Google Scholar
  64. Moscovici, S. (1985). The age of the crowd. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Nora, P. (1984). Essais d’ego-histoire. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
  66. Pateman, C. (1988). The sexual contract. Oxford: Polity PressGoogle Scholar
  67. Perrot, M. (1987). L’air du temps. In P. Nora (Ed.), Essais d’ego-histoire (pp. 241–292). Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
  68. Piralian, H. (1994). Génocide et transmission. Paris: l’Harmattan.Google Scholar
  69. Plon, M. (1974). On the meaning of the notion of conflict and its study in social psychology. European Journal of social psychology, 4, 389–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Poliakov, L. (1955). Histoire de l’antisémitisme. Du Christ aux Juifs de cour. Paris (Vol. 1): Calmann-Lévy.Google Scholar
  71. Rantalaiho, L. (1992). Shaping structural change and reshaping the gender contract. Paper presented at the European Conference on Women and Power, Athens, GreeceGoogle Scholar
  72. Schisgal, & Murray. (2002). “Le regard” theatershaw produced by Laurent Terzieff in Paris.Google Scholar
  73. Stewart, A. Zucker, A. (1999). Regrouping social identities. Feminism and Psychology, 9(3), 296–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Strickland, L. (1976). Priorities and Paradigms. The conference and the book. In. L. Strickland, F. E. Aboud, & K. J. Gergen (Eds.), Social Psychology in Transition (pp. 3–11). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  75. Teitel, R. (2000). Transitional Justice. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Triandis. (1979). Commentary. In W. G. Austin, & S. Worchel (Eds), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 321–334). Monterey: Brooks and Coles.Google Scholar
  77. Varikas, E. (1995). Genre et démocratie historique ou le paradoxe de l’égalité par le privilège. In M. Riot-Sarcey (Ed.), Démocratie et représentation. Paris: Kimé.Google Scholar
  78. Venn, C. (2002). Refiguring subjectivity after modernity. In V. Walkerdine (Ed.), Challenging subjects. Critical psychology for a new millennium (pp. 51–74). London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  79. Walkerdine, V. (1991). “Didn’t she do well?” Film.Google Scholar
  80. Walkerdine, V. (2002). Introduction. In V. Walkerdine (Ed.), Challenging subjects. Critical psychology for a new millennium (pp. 1–3). London: Palgrave.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Directeur de Recherche EmériteCNRSParisFrance

Personalised recommendations