Introduction to Confounding
Confounding is an important limitation of observational studies.
Confounding alters the interpretation of study results, obscuring whether the exposure is a cause of the outcome.
- 3.A confounder is classically defined as a factor that is:
associated with the exposure,
associated with the outcome, and
not in the causal pathway of association.
Study data are used to judge whether a potential confounder is associated with the exposure and the outcome.
Biological and clinical knowledge are used to judge whether a potential confounder is in the causal pathway of association.
Confounding-by-indication occurs when the specific indication for a medication confounds the association between the use of that medication and the study outcome.
KeywordsPotential Confounder Loop Diuretic Causal Pathway Mast Cell Degranulation Acute Bronchitis