Advertisement

Case-Control Studies

  • Bryan Kestenbaum
Chapter

Learning Objectives

  1. 1.

    Case-control studies work backwards, first identifying diseased and nondiseased individuals, and then ascertaining the frequency of previous exposures.

     
  2. 2.
    Ideal characteristics for selecting cases:
    1. a.

      Use a specific definition of the disease

       
    2. b.

      Select individuals who have incident disease

       
     
  3. 3.
    Ideal characteristics for selecting controls:
    1. a.

      Controls should derive from the same underlying population as the cases

       
    2. b.

      Controls should have the opportunity to be counted as cases if they develop disease

       
     
  4. 4.
    Case-control studies have certain advantages:
    1. a.

      Can be useful for studying rare outcomes and those with long latency periods

       
    2. b.

      Can be useful for evaluating multiple risk factors for a disease

       
     
  5. 5.
    Case-control studies have certain disadvantages:
    1. a.

      Observational design: other factors may be responsible for observed associations

       
    2. b.

      Recall bias may distort associations

       
     
  6. 6.

    Case-control studies can estimate only the relative risk of disease; the incidence and attributable risk cannot be determined from case-control data alone.

     
  7. 7.

    The primary measure of effect in a case-control study is the odds ratio.

     
  8. 8.

    Odds ratios approximate relative risks when the outcome is rare.

     

Keywords

Developmental Disorder Oxidative Stress Marker Pervasive Developmental Disorder Kidney Dysfunction Specific Definition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 24.
    Smeeth L, Cook C, Fombonne E, et al. MMR vaccination and pervasive developmental disorders: a case-control study. Lancet. Sep 11–17 2004;364(9438):963–969.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 25.
    Fried LP, Borhani NO, Enright P, et al. The Cardiovascular Health Study: design and rationale. Ann Epidemiol. Feb 1991;1(3):263–276.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 26.
    Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A case-control study of HIV seroconversion in health care workers after percutaneous exposure. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Needlestick Surveillance Group. N Engl J Med. Nov 20 1997;337(21):1485–1490.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 27.
    Papadakis MA, Teherani A, Banach MA, et al. Disciplinary action by medical boards and prior behavior in medical school. N Engl J Med. Dec 22 2005;353(25):2673–2682.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations