Cross-Sectional Studies

  • Bryan Kestenbaum

Learning Objectives

  1. 1.

    Cross-sectional studies measure the exposure and the outcome at the same time.

  2. 2.

    Cross-sectional studies estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition.

  3. 3.

    Cross-sectional studies cannot establish a temporal relationship between the exposure and the outcome.



Peripheral Arterial Disease Homocysteine Level MTHFR Gene Serum Homocysteine Level Food Packaging Material 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 15.
    Lang IA, Galloway TS, Scarlett A, et al. Association of urinary bisphenol A concentration with medical disorders and laboratory abnormalities in adults. JAMA. Sep 17 2008;300(11):1303–1310.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations