Performance Based Measures and Practical Validity

  • John Reid
Part of the The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality book series (SSHE)

Much has been assumed about the advantages of being high in Emotional Intelligence (EI), but how does Emotional Intelligence manifest itself in the real world? Does it comprise good character and maturity (Goleman, 1995, 1998), superior intrapersonal and interpersonal skills (Gardner, 1999), or wisdom and the ability to manage others (Thorndike, 1920)? The term EI has been used to encompass a wide variety of constructs; for example, Constructive Thinking has been proposed as the foundation of EI (Epstein, 1998). And if it were possible to settle on a concrete definition of the real-world behavioural manifestations of EI, what vocations and roles would high EI be valuable for? This chapter attempts to shed some light on these important issues for the EI research community.


Emotional Intelligence Emotional Competency Social Intelligence Facial Emotion Recognition Incremental Variance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological testing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  2. Bar-On, R. (1997). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Technical manual. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  3. Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Quotient Inventory. In R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), The handbook of emotional intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  4. Bar-On, R., Handley, R., & Fund, S. (2006). The impact of emotional intelligence on performance. In V. U. Druskat, F. Sala, & G. Mount (Eds.), Linking emotional intelligence and performance at work. Marwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. Binet, A., & Simon, T. (1911). A method of measuring the development of the intelligence of young children. Lincoln, IL: Courier Company.Google Scholar
  6. Boyatzis, R. E., Goleman, D., & Rhee, K. S. (2000). Clustering competence in emotional intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Competence Inventory. In R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), The handbook of emotional intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  7. Brackett, M. A., & Mayer, J. D. (2003). Convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of competing measures of emotional intelligence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(9), 1147–1158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradberry, T., & Greaves, J. (2004). Emotional Intelligence Appraisal – Technical manual, from
  9. Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities – A survey of factor-analytic studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cherniss, C. (2000). Social and emotional competence in the workplace. In R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), The handbook of emotional intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  11. Cherniss, C. (2001). Emotional intelligence and organizational effectiveness. In C. Cherniss & D. Goleman (Eds.), The emotionally intelligent workplace (pp. 3–12). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  12. Cherniss, C. (2004). The business case for emotional intelligence [Electronic version]. Retrieved January 11, 2007, from
  13. Ciarrochi, J., & Godsell, C. (2006). Mindfulness-based emotional intelligence: Research and training. In V. U. Druskat, F. Sala, & G. Mount (Eds.), Linking emotional intelligence and performance at work (pp. 21–52). Marwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  14. Davies, M., Stankov, L., & Roberts, R. D. (1998). Emotional Intelligence: In search of an elusive construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(4), 989–1015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ekman, P. (2003). Micro expression training tool (METT), from
  16. Epstein, S. (1998). Constructive thinking: The key to emotional intelligence. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  17. Ford, M. E., & Tisak, M. S. (1983). A further search for social intelligence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75(2), 196–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  19. Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  20. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  21. Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  22. Goleman, D. (2001). An EI based theory of performance. In C. Cherniss & D. Goleman (Eds.), The emotionally intelligent workplace (pp. 27–44). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  23. Herrnstein, R. J., & Murray, C. (1994). The bell curve: Intelligence and class structure in American life. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  24. Hunter, J. E., & Hunter, R. F. (1984). Validity and utility of alternative predictors of job performance. Psychological Bulletin, 96(1), 72–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hunter, J. E., Schmidt, F. L., & Judiesch, M. K. (1990). Individual differences in output variability as a function of job complexity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(1), 28–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mackintosh, N. J. (1998). IQ and human intelligence. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Matsumoto, D., LeRoux, J., Wilson-Cohn, C., Raroque, J., Kooken, K., Ekman, P., et al. (2000). A new test to measure emotion recognition ability: Matsumoto and Ekman's Japanese and Caucasian Brief Affect Recognition Test (JACBART). Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 24(3), 179–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Matthews, G., Roberts, R. D., & Zeidner, M. (2004). Seven myths about emotional intelligence. Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), 179–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (2002). Emotional intelligence: Science and myth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  30. Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intellligence, 27(4), 267–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mayer, J. D., & Cobb, C. D. (2000). Educational policy on emotional intelligence: Does it make sense? Educational Policy Review, 12(2), 163–183.Google Scholar
  32. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2000). Models of emotional intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), The handbook of intelligence (pp. 396–420). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2002). Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) – User's manual. Toronto: Multi Health Systems.Google Scholar
  34. McCrae, R. R. (2000). Emotional intelligence from the perspective of the Five Factor model of personality. In R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), The handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 263–276). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  35. McCrae, R. R., & John, O. P. (1992). An introduction to the Five Factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality, 60(2), 175–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nowicki, S., Jr., & Duke, M. P. (2001). Nonverbal receptivity: The diagnostic analysis of nonverbal accuracy (DANVA). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  37. Palmer, B., & Stough, C. (2001). Swinburn University Emotional Intelligence Test: Interim technical manual – Version 2. Melbourne: Swinburne University.Google Scholar
  38. Petrides, K. V., Frederickson, N., & Furnham, A. (2004). The role of trait emotional intelligence in academic performance and deviant behaviour at school. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 277–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2004). Technical manual of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). London: University of London, Institute of Education.Google Scholar
  40. Petrides, K. V., Perez, J. C., & Furnham, A. (2003). The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). A measure of emotional self-efficacy. Paper presented at the symposium conducted at the 11th biennial meeting of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, Graz, Austria, September 2007.Google Scholar
  41. Reid, J. R. (2007). Establishing the predictive validity of emotional intelligence using real-world criteria. Unpublished PhD dissertation.Google Scholar
  42. Roberts, R. D., Schulze, R., O’Brien, K., MacCann, C., Reid, J., & Maul, A. (2006). Exploring the validity of the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) with established emotions measures. Emotion, 6(4), 663–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Saklofske, D. H., & Parker, J. (2005). Emotional intelligence and education. In C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, & K. Hansen (Eds.), Emotional intelligence international symposium 2005. Swinburne University: Tertiary Press.Google Scholar
  44. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3), 185–211.Google Scholar
  45. Salovey, P., Mayer, J. D., Goldman, S. L., Turvey, C., & Palfai, T. P. (1995). Emotional attention, clarity, and repair: Exploring emotional intelligence using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale. In J. W. Pennebaker (Ed.), Emotion disclosure and health. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  46. Scherer, K. R. (2002). Vocal emotion recognition task. Geneva: Supplied by Tanja.Banzigerθ Scholar
  47. Scherer, K. R., Banse, R., & Walbott, H. G. (2001). Emotion inferences from vocal expression correlate across languages and cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32(1), 76–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 124(2), 262–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schulze, R., & Roberts, R. D. (2005). Emotional intelligence: An international handbook. Washington, DC: Hogrefe & Huber.Google Scholar
  50. Schutte, N. S., Malouf, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., et al. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Thoits, P. A. (1991). Gender differences in coping with emotional stress. In J. Eckenrode (Ed.), The social context of coping. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  52. Thorndike, E. L. (1920). Intelligence and its uses. Harper's Magazine, 140, 227–235.Google Scholar
  53. Watkin, C. (2000). Developing emotional intelligence. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 8(13), 89–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wechsler, D. (1997). WAIS-III administration and scoring manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of TasmaniaAustralia

Personalised recommendations