New Directions and Alternative Approaches to the Measurement of Emotional Intelligence

  • Benjamin Orchard
  • Carolyn MacCann
  • Ralf Schulze
  • Gerald Matthews
  • Moshe Zeidner
  • Richard D. Roberts
Part of the The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality book series (SSHE)

Imagine a test developer struggling with the complex task of creating an assessment tool to measure an exciting new construct desired by educational, industrial/organizational, and clinical psychologists alike. The test developer first turns to the peer-review literature for a definition to act as a basis for this test, but finds instead heated debate and much disagreement. Researchers are using many different approaches to measure this new construct. In addition, the scores associated with these different approaches seem to measure different entities. The dissension about which approach is the most useful or valid leaves the test developer confused over which approach might measure the “real” construct. The measurement of emotional intelligence (EI) is currently at just such a somewhat precarious stage.


Emotion Recognition Emotional Intelligence Implicit Association Test Validity Evidence Social Intelligence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This research was supported in part by U.S. Army Research Institute (ARI) Contract W91WAW-07-C-0025 to the Educational Testing Service (ETS). We thank Patrick Kyllonen, Don Powers, Matthew Ventura, and Dan Eignor for comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript, and Mary Lucas, Jennifer Minsky, and Cris Valkyria for supporting the preparation of this chapter. All statements expressed in this article are the authors’ and do not necessarily reflect the official opinions or policies of the U.S. government, ARI, or ETS.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin Orchard
    • 1
  • Carolyn MacCann
    • 2
  • Ralf Schulze
    • 3
  • Gerald Matthews
    • 4
  • Moshe Zeidner
    • 5
  • Richard D. Roberts
    • 6
  1. 1.Educational Testing ServicePrincetonUSA
  2. 2.University of SydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Bergische Universität WuppertalGermany
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  5. 5.Center for Interdisciplinary Research on EmotionsDepartment of Human Development and Counseling Haifa UniversityIsrael
  6. 6.Genos Pty LtdAustralia

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