The Application of Emotional Intelligence in Industrial and Organizational Psychology

  • Peter J. Jordan
  • Jane P. Murray
  • Sandra A. Lawrence
Part of the The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality book series (SSHE)

Business seems to be enamoured by the construct of emotional intelligence. The emotional intelligence framework has enabled managers to understand the contribution of emotions in creating desirable qualities in business such as enthusiasm, motivation, and affective commitment (loyalty), and how these can be enhanced in the workplace by influencing employees’ affective abilities (Caruso & Salovey, 2004; Cherniss, 2001; Cherniss & Adler, 2000). At its most basic level, the emotional intelligence framework has provided business with a basis for implementing competencies that identify skills that enable employees to deal with emotions in the workplace. While enthusiasm for the potential of emotional intelligence is shared by many in the business community (Goleman, 2000, 2004), there are those working in and with business who have some level of psychological training and cannot understand the attraction (see Murphy, 2006). Some of this can be linked to the varying conceptualizations of emotional intelligence (see Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000), while other criticisms emerge from the way in which emotional intelligence is measured (Conte, 2005; Landy, 2005; Locke, 2005).


Emotional Intelligence Transformational Leadership Team Performance Affective Commitment Organizational Psychology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This chapter was partially funded by an Australian Research Council grant awarded to the first author.


  1. Ashkanasy, N. M. (2003). Emotions in organizations: A multilevel perspective. In F. Dansereau & F. J. Yammarino (Eds.), Research in multi-level issues, vol. 2: Multi-level issues in organizational behavior and strategy (pp. 9–54). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  2. Ashkanasy, N. M., & Daus, C. S. (2005). Rumors of the death of emotional intelligence in organizational behavior are vastly exaggerated. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 441–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashkanasy, N. M., & Tse, B. (2000). Transformational leadership as management of emotion: A conceptual review. In N. M. Ashkanasy, W. Zerbe, & C. E. J. Härtel (Eds.), Emotions in the workplace: Research, theory and practice (pp. 221–236). Westport, CT: Quorum Books.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A., & Wood, R. E. (1989). Effect of perceived controllability and performance standards on self-regulation of complex decision-making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 805–814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbuto, J. E., & Burbach, M. E. (2006). The emotional intelligence of transformational leaders: A field study of elected officials. The Journal of Social Psychology, 146, 51–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bar-On, R. (1999). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Technical manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems, Inc.Google Scholar
  7. Bastian, V. A., Burns, N. R., & Nettelbeck, T. (2005). Emotional intelligence predicts life skills, but not as well as personality and cognitive abilities. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1135–1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. In N. Schmitt & W. C. Borman (Eds.), Personnel selection in organizations (pp. 71–98). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  9. Boyatzis, R., Goleman, D., & Rhee, K. (2000). Clustering competence in emotional intelligence: Insights from the emotional competence inventory. In R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 343–362). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  10. Carmeli A. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behavior and outcomes: An examination among senior managers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18, 788–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (2004). The emotionally intelligent manager: How to develop and use the four key emotional skills of leadership. San Fransisco: Josey Bass.Google Scholar
  12. Cherniss, C. (2001). Emotional intelligence and organizational effectiveness. In C. Cherniss & D. Goleman (Eds.), The emotionally intelligent workplace (pp. 3–12). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  13. Cherniss, C., & Adler, M. (2000). Promoting emotional intelligence in organizations: Guidelines to help you design, implement, and evaluate effective programs. Alexandria, PA: American Society for Training and Development.Google Scholar
  14. Cherniss, C., & Goleman, D. (2001). The emotionally intelligent workplace: How to select for, measure, and improve emotional intelligence in individuals, groups, and organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  15. Clarke, N. (2006). Emotional intelligence training: A case of caveat emptor. Human Resource Development Review, 15(4), 422–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Conte, J. M. (2005). A review and critique of emotional intelligence measures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 433–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cooper, R. K., & Sawaf, A. (1997). Executive EQ: Emotional intelligence in leadership and organizations. New York: Grosset/Putnam.Google Scholar
  18. Daus, C. S., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2005). The case for the ability based model of emotional intelligence in organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 453–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Day, A. L., & Carroll, S. A. (2004). Using an ability-based measure of emotional intelligence to predict individual performance, group performance, and group citizenship behaviors. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1443–1458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Downey, L. A., Papageorgiou, V., & Stough, C. (2006). Examining the relationship between leadership, emotional intelligence and intuition in senior female managers. Leadership and Organization Development, 27, 250–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Druskat, V. U., & Wolff, S. B. (2001). Building the emotional intelligence of groups. Harvard Business Review, 79, 80–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Elfenbein, H. A. (2006). Team emotional intelligence: What it can mean and how it can affect performance. In V. U. Druskat, F. Sala, & G. Mount (Eds.), Linking emotional intelligence and performance at work: Current research evidence with individuals and groups (pp. 165–184). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  23. Elfenbein, H. A., Polzer, J. T., & Ambady, N. (2007). Team emotion recognition accuracy and team performance. In N. M. Ashkanasy, W. J. Zerbe, & C. E. J. Härtel (Eds.), Research on emotions in organizations (pp. 87–119). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  24. Fisher, C. D., & Noble, C. S. (2004). A within-person examination of correlates of performance and emotions while working. Human Performance, 17(2), 145–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Foo, M. D., Elfenbein, H., Tan, H. H., & Aik, V. C. (2004). Emotional intelligence and negotiation: The tension between creating and claiming value. International Journal of Conflict Management, 15, 411–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fox, S., & Spector, P. E. (2000). Relations of emotional intelligence, practical intelligence, general intelligence, and trait affectivity with interview outcomes: It's not all just 'G'. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 203–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gardner, L., & Stough, C. (2002). Examining the relationship between leadership and emotional intelligence in senior level managers. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 23, 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. George, J. M. (2000). Emotions and leadership: The role of emotional intelligence. Human Relations, 53, 1027–1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gersick, C. J. (1991) Revolutionary change theories: A multilevel exploration of the punctuated equilibrium paradigm. Academy of Management Review, 16, 10–36.Google Scholar
  30. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam.Google Scholar
  31. Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  32. Goleman, D. (2000). Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review, 78, 78–93.Google Scholar
  33. Goleman, D. (2004). What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review, 82, 82–91.Google Scholar
  34. Humphrey, R. H. (2002). The many faces of emotional leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 13, 493–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hughes, M., Patterson, L. B., & Terrell, J. B. (2005). Emotional intelligence in action: Training and coaching activities for leaders and managers. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.Google Scholar
  36. Huy, Q. N. (1999). Emotional capability, emotional intelligence, and radical change. Academy of Management Review, 24, 325–345.Google Scholar
  37. Isen, A. M., & Baron, R. A. (1991). Positive affect as a factor in organizational behavior. Research in Organizational Behavior, 13, 1–53.Google Scholar
  38. Jones, K. (2002). Emotional games for training: 15 games that explore feelings, behavior and values. Aldershot: Gower Publishing.Google Scholar
  39. Jordan, P. J. (2007). Emotional intelligence at work: A review of research. In I. Glendon, B. Myors, & B. Thompson (Eds.), Advances in Organisational Psychology: An Asia-Pacific Perspective (pp. 355–370). Brisbane: Australian Academic Press.Google Scholar
  40. Jordan, P. J, Ashkanasy, N. M., & Ashton-James, C. E. (2006). Evaluating the claims: Emotional intelligence in the workplace. In K. R. Murphy (Ed.), A critique of emotional intelligence: What are the problems and how can they be fixed? (pp. 189–210). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  41. Jordan, P. J., Ashkanasy, N. M., & Härtel, C. E. J. (2002). Emotional intelligence as a moderator of emotional and behavioral reactions to job insecurity. Academy of Management Review, 27, 1–12.Google Scholar
  42. Jordan, P. J., Ashkanasy, N. M., Härtel, C. E. J., & Hooper, G. S. (2002). Workgroup emotional intelligence: Scale development and relationship to team process effectiveness and goal focus. Human Resource Management Review, 12, 195–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jordan, P. J., & Troth, A. C. (2002).  Emotional intelligence and conflict resolution: Implications for human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 4(1), 62–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jordan, P. J., & Troth, A. C. (2004). Managing emotions during team problem solving: Emotional intelligence and conflict resolution. Human Performance, 17, 195–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lam, L. T., & Kirby, S. L. (2002). Is emotional intelligence an advantage? An exploration of the impact of emotional and general intelligence on individual performance. Journal of Social Psychology, 142, 133–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Landy, F. J. (2005). Some historical and scientific issues related to research on emotional intelligence. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 411–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Landy, F. J., & Conte, J. M. (2007). Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  48. Law, K. S., Wong, C. S., & Song, L. J. (2004). The construct and criterion validity of emotional intelligence and its potential utility for management studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(3), 483–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Locke, E. A. (2005). Why emotional intelligence is an invalid concept. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 425–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice HallGoogle Scholar
  51. Lopes, P. N., Salovey, P., Côté, S., & Beers, M. (2005). Emotion regulation ability and the quality of social interaction. Emotion, 5, 113–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lynn, A. B. (2000). 50 Activities for developing emotional intelligence. Amherst, MA: HRD Press.Google Scholar
  53. Lynn, A. B. (2002). The emotional intelligence activity book: 50 activities for promoting EQ at work. New York: HRD Press.Google Scholar
  54. Lynn, A. B. (2005). The EQ difference: A powerful program for putting emotional intelligence to work. New York: AMACOM.Google Scholar
  55. Lynn, A. B. (2007). Quick emotional intelligence activities for busy managers: 50 exercises that get results in just 15 minutes. New York: AMACOM.Google Scholar
  56. Lyons, J. B., & Schneider, T. R. (2005). The influence of emotional intelligence on performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 693–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mann, S. (1999). Emotion at work: To what extent are we expressing, suppressing, or faking it? European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(3), 347–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (2002). Emotional intelligence: Science and myth. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  59. Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Implications for educators (pp. 3–31). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  60. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2000). Competing models of emotional intelligence. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of intelligence (pp. 396–420). New York: Cambridge.Google Scholar
  61. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D. R., & Sitarenios, G. (2002). Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT): Users manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  62. Megerian, L. E., & Sosik, J. J. (1996). An affair of the heart: Emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Journal of Leadership Studies, 3, 31–48.Google Scholar
  63. Moriarty, P., & Buckley, F. (2003). Increasing team emotional intelligence through process. Journal of European Industrial Training, 27(2–4), 98–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Murphy, K. R. (Ed.) (2006). A critique of emotional intelligence: What are the problems and how can they be fixed? Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  65. Murray, J. P., Jordan, P. J., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2006). Training to improve emotional intelligence and performance: What interventions work? Paper presented at the 20th annual conference of the annual meeting of the Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management, Rockhampton, Australia.Google Scholar
  66. Offermann, L. R., Bailey, J. R., Vasilopoulos, N. L., Seal, C., & Sass, M. (2004). The relative contribution of emotional competence and cognitive ability to individual and team performance. Human Performance, 17, 219–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Palmer, B., & Stough, C. (2001). Workplace SUEIT: Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test – Descriptive Report. Melbourne: Organizational Psychology Research Unit, Swinburne University.Google Scholar
  68. Rapisarda, B. A. (2002). The impact of emotional intelligence on work team cohesiveness and performance. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 10, 363–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rozell, E. J., Pettijohn, C. E., & Parker, R. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and dispositional affectivity as predictors of performance in salespeople. Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice, 14, 113–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rubin, R. S., Munz, D. C., & Bommer, W. H. (2005). Leading from within: The effects of emotion recognition and personality on transformational leadership behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 48, 845–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Salovey, P., Bedell, B., Detweiler, J. B., & Mayer, J. D. (1999). Coping intelligently: Emotional intelligence and the coping process. In C. R. Snyder (Ed.), Coping: The psychology of what works (pp. 141–164). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185–211.Google Scholar
  73. Salovey, P., Mayer, J. D., Goldman, S., Turvey, C., & Palfai, T. (1995). Emotional attention, clarity and repair: Exploring emotional intelligence using the Trait Meta-Mood scale. In J. W. Pennebaker (Ed.), Emotion, disclosure and health (pp. 125–154). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Salovey, P., Stroud, L. R., Woolery, A., & Epel, E. S. (2002). Perceived emotional intelligence, stress reactivity, and symptom reports: Further explorations using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale. Psychology and Health, 17, 611–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., et al. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sivanathan, N., & Fekken, G. C. (2002). Emotional intelligence, moral reasoning and transformational leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(3/4), 198–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Slaski, M., & Cartwright, S. (2002). Health performance and emotional intelligence: An exploratory study of retail managers. Stress and Health, 18, 63–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Slaski, M., & Cartwright, S. (2003). Emotional intelligence training and its implications for stress, health and performance. Stress and Health, 19, 233–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tuckman, B. (1965). Developing sequences in small groups, Psychological Bulletin, 63, 384–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Watkin, C. (2000). Developing emotional intelligence. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 2, 89–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Weick, K. (1989). Theory construction as disciplined imagination. Academy of Management Review, 14, 516–531.Google Scholar
  82. Wolff, S. B., Pescosolido, A. T., & Druskat, V. U. (2002). Emotional intelligence as the basis of leadership emergence in self-managing teams. Leadership Quarterly, 13, 505–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wong, C. S., & Law, K. S. (2002). The Effect of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. Leadership Quarterly, 13, 243–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Zeidner, M., Matthews G., & Roberts, R. D. (2004a). Slow down, you move too fast: Emotional intelligence remains an “elusive” intelligence. Emotion, 3, 265–275.Google Scholar
  85. Zeidner, M., Matthews G., & Roberts, R. D. (2004b). Emotional intelligence in the workplace: A critical review. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 53, 371–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter J. Jordan
    • 1
  • Jane P. Murray
    • 2
  • Sandra A. Lawrence
    • 1
  1. 1.Griffith Business School, Griffith UniversityBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.School of BusinessBond UniversityAustralia

Personalised recommendations