Health of Children and Women in the Farmworker Community in the Eastern United States

  • Sara A. Quandt


This chapter reviews research on health of women and children in farmworker communities in the eastern United States. Both women and children may be present in these communities as farmworkers themselves or as dependents. Both groups are at risk of health effects from farm work. Research indicates that children have limited access to care and significant unmet health needs. Obesity and food security are concerns. The environment poses significant risks, particularly from pesticides. Women lack access to reproductive health services. Exposure to pesticides is also a significant risk. Mental health and sexual harassment are important, but understudied problems. Overall, the research on health issues for women and children in farmworker communities in the eastern US is highly variable. Because access to linguistically and culturally appropriate services is limited, the needs of the population in this region and solutions to eliminate health disparities may be unique.


Intimate Partner Violence Sexual Harassment Hispanic Woman Pesticide Exposure Migrant Child 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abma JC, Chandra A, Mosher WD (1997) Fertility, family planning, and women’s health: new data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Vital Health Stat 23(19):1–114Google Scholar
  2. Alderete E, Vega WA, Kolody B (2000) Lifetime prevalence of and risk factors for psychiatric disorders among Mexican migrant farmworkers in California. Am J Public Health 90:608–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvarez WF, Doris J, Larson O 3rd (1988) Children of migrant farm work families are at high risk for maltreatment: New York State study. Am J Public Health 78:934–936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. American Academy of Pediatrics (2000) Guidelines for the care of migrant farmworkers’ children. American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL Google Scholar
  5. Arbuckle TE, Lin Z, Mery LS (2001) An exploratory analysis of the effect of pesticide exposure on the risk of spontaneous abortion in an Ontario farm population. Environ Health Perspect 109:851–857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Arcury TA, Quandt SA, Rao P (2005) Organophosphate pesticide exposure in farmworker family members in western North Carolina and Virginia: case comparisons. Hum Organ 64:40–51Google Scholar
  7. Arcury TA, Grzywacz JG, Barr DB (2007) Pesticide urinary metabolite levels of children in eastern North Carolina farmworker households. Environ Health Perspect 115:1254–1260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baer RD, Garcia de Alba J, Leal RM (1998) Mexican use of lead in the treatment of empacho: community, clinic, and longitudinal patterns. Soc Sci Med 47:1263–1266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barr DB, Bravo R, Weerasekera G (2004) Concentrations of dialkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides in the US population. Environ Health Perspect 112:186–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bechtel GA (1998) Parasitic infections among migrant farm families. J Community Health Nurs 15:1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bechtel GA, Shepherd MA, Rogers PW (1995) Family, culture, and health practices among migrant farmworkers. J Community Health Nurs 12:15–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Boucher F (2000) Lay health advisors increase cervical cancer screening rates among Mexican farmworkers. In: Proceedings of the 15th National Conference on Chronic Disease Prevention and Control. Living Healthier, Living Longer: The Will and the Way. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  13. Bradman A, Barr DB, Claus Henn BG (2003) Measurement of pesticides and other toxicants in amniotic fluid as a potential biomarker of prenatal exposure: a validation study. Environ Health Perspect 111:1779–1782PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Caetano R, Ramisetty-Mikler S, Caetano Vaeth PA (2007) Acculturation stress, drinking, and intimate partner violence among Hispanic couples in the U.S. J Interpers Violence 22:1431–1447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Calvert GM, Alarcon WA, Chelminski A (2007) Case report: three farmworkers who gave birth to infants with birth defects closely grouped in time and place – Florida and North Carolina, 2004–2005. Environ Health Perspect 115:787–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Camann DE, Colt JS, Teitelbaum SL (2000) Pesticide and PAH distributions in house dust from seven areas of USA. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21st Annual Meeting, paper 570, Nashville, TNGoogle Scholar
  17. Carroll D, Samardick RM, Bernard S et al. (2005) Findings from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) 2001–2002: A Demographic and Employment Profile of United States Farm Workers. US Department of Labor Google Scholar
  18. Carter-Pokras O, Zambrana RE, Poppell CF (2007) The environmental health of Latino children. J Pediatr Health Care 21:307–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Casey PH, Simpson PM, Gossett JM (2006) The association of child and household food insecurity with childhood overweight status. Pediatrics 118:e1406–e1413Google Scholar
  20. Cason K, Nieto-Montenegro S, Chavez-Martinez A, et al. (2003) Dietary intake and food security among migrant farm workers in Pennsylvania. Harris School Working Paper Series 04.2.
  21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1992) HIV infection, syphilis, and tuberculosis screening among migrant farm workers – Florida, 1992. MMWR 41:723–725 Google Scholar
  22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1997) Pregnancy-related behaviors among migrant farm workers – four states, 1989–1993. MMWR 46:283–286 Google Scholar
  23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002) Managing elevated blood lead levels among young children: recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention. CDC, Atlanta, GA Google Scholar
  24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004) Behavioral risk factor surveillance system. National Center for Chronic Disease and Prevention and Health Promotion: Atlanta, GA Google Scholar
  25. Centers for Disease Control and Pevention (2005) Third national report on human exposure to environmental chemicals. CDC, Atlanta, GA. Available:
  26. Chaffin JG, Pai SC, Bargamian RA (2003) Caries prevalence in northwest Michigan migrant children. J Dent Child 70:124–129Google Scholar
  27. Chelminski AN, Higgins S, Meyer R et al. (2006) Assessment of maternal occupational pesticide exposures during pregnancy and three children with birth defects: North Carolina, 2004. Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Public Health, North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, Raleigh, NC. Available: http://www.epi.
  28. Chi PSK, McClain J (1992) Drinking, farm, and camp life: a study of drinking behavior in migrant camps in New York State. J Rural Health 8:41–51Google Scholar
  29. Ciesielski SD, Seed JR, Ortiz JC (1992) Intestinal parasites among North Carolina migrant farmworkers. Am J Public Health 82:1258–1262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cooper SP, Weller NF, Fox EE, et al. (2005a) Comparative description of migrant farmworkers versus other students attending rural south Texas schools: substance use, work, and injuries. J Rural Health 21:361–366Google Scholar
  31. Cooper SP, Weller NF, Fox EE, et al. (2005b) Comparative description of migrant farmworkers versus other students attending South Texas schools: demographic, academic, and health characteristics. Tex Med 101:58–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Coughlin SS, Wilson KM (2002) Breast and cervical cancer screening among migrant and seasonal farmworkers: a review. Cancer Detect Prev 26:203–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Coughlin SS, Leadbetter S, Richards T (2008) Contextual analysis of breast and cervical cancer screening and factors associated with health care access among United States women, 2002. Soc Sci Med 66:260–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Curl CL, Fenske RA, Kissel JC (2002) Evaluation of take-home organophosphorus pesticide exposure among agricultural workers and their children. Environ Health Perspect 110:A787–A792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Davis S, Leonard JB (2000) The ones the law forgot: children working in agriculture. Farmworker Justice Fund, Washington, DC. Available:
  36. Denham AC, Frasier PY, Hooten EG (2007) Intimate partner violence among Latinas in eastern North Carolina. Violence Against Women 13:123–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Drewnowski A, Darmon N (2005) The economics of obesity: dietary energy density and energy cost. Am J Clin Nutr 82(1 Suppl):265S–273SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Easter MM, Linnan LA, Bentley ME (2007) “Una mujer trabaja doble aquí”: vignette-based focus groups on stress and work for Latina blue-collar women in eastern North Carolina. Health Promot Pract 8:41–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Entwistle BA, Swanson TM (1989) Dental needs and perceptions of adult Hispanic migrant farmworkers in Colorado. J Dent Hyg 63:286–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Eskenazi B, Marks AR, Bradman A (2007) Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodevelopment in young Mexican-American children. Environ Health Perspect 115:792–798PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Essa JS (2001) Nutrition, health, and food security practices, concerns, and perceived barriers of Latino farm/industry workers in Virginia. MS thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Online:–133508/unrestricted/Thesis-Chapters.pdf
  42. Faustman EM, Silbernagel SM, Fenske RA (2000) Mechanisms underlying children’s susceptibility to environmental toxicants. Environ Health Perspect 108(Suppl 1):13–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fenske RA (1997) Pesticide exposure assessment of workers and their families. Occup Med: State of the Art Reviews 12(2):221–237Google Scholar
  44. Fernández MI, Collazo JB, Hernández N (2004) Predictors of HIV risk among Hispanic farm workers in South Florida: women are at higher risk than men. AIDS Behav 8:165–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gabbard S, Carroll D, Baron S (1999) Teens in crop agriculture. Paper prepared for the National Adolescent Farmworker Occupational Health and Safety Advisory Committee. US Department of Labor, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  46. Garcés-Palacio IC, Altarac M, Scarinci IC (2008) Contraceptive knowledge and use among low-income Hispanic immigrant women and non-Hispanic women. Contraception 77:270–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gentry K, Quandt SA, Davis SW (2007) Child healthcare in two farmworker populations. J Community Health 32:419–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Goldsmith DF, Sisneros GC (1996) Cancer prevention strategies among California farmworkers: preliminary findings. J Rural Health 12(4 Suppl):343–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Grzywacz JG, Quandt SA, Early J (2006a) Leaving family for work: ambivalence and mental health among Mexican migrant farmworker men. J Immigr Minor Health 8:85–97Google Scholar
  50. Grzywacz JG, Hovey JD, Seligman LD (2006b) Evaluating short-form versions of the CES-D for measuring depressive symptoms among immigrants from Mexico. Hisp J Behav Sci 28:404–424Google Scholar
  51. Grzywacz JG, Quandt SA, Isom S (2007) Alcohol use among immigrant Latino farmworkers in North Carolina. Am J Ind Med 50:617–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gwyther ME, Jenkins M (1998) Migrant farmworker children: health status, barriers to care, and nursing innovations in health care delivery. J Pediatr Health Care 12:60–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Harrison L, Scarinci I (2007) Child health needs of rural Alabama Latino families. J Community Health Nurs 24:31–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hirsch JS, Higgins J, Bentley ME et al. (2002) The social constructions of sexuality: marital infidelity and sexually transmitted disease-HIV risk in a Mexican migrant community. Am J Public Health 92:1227–1237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hirsch JS, Meneses S, Thompson B et al. (2007) The inevitability of infidelity: sexual reputation, social geographies, and marital HIV risk in rural Mexico. Am J Public Health 97:986–996PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hooks C, Ugarte C, Silsby J (1996) Obstacles and opportunities in designing cancer control communication research for farmworkers on the Delmarva Peninsula. J Rural Health 12(4 Suppl):332–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Housing Assistance Council (2000) Abundant fields, meager shelter: findings from a survey of farmworker housing in the eastern migrant stream. Housing Assistance Council, Washington, DC. Google Scholar
  58. Housing Assistance Council (2001) No refuge from the fields: findings from a survey of farmworker housing conditions in the United States. Housing Assistance Council, Washington, DC. Google Scholar
  59. Hovey JD, Magaña C (2000) Acculturative stress, anxiety, and depression among Mexican immigrant farmworkers in the midwest United States. J Immigr Health 2:119–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Human Rights Watch (2000) Fingers to the bone: Unites States failure to protect child farmworkers. Human Rights Watch, New York Google Scholar
  61. Inciardi JA, Surratt HL, Colón HM (1999) Drug use and HIV risks among migrant workers on the DelMarVa Peninsula. Subst Use Misuse 34:653–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Infante-Rivard C, Weichenthal S (2007) Pesticides and childhood cancer: an update of Zahm and Ward’s 1998 review. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 10:81–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kim-Godwin YS, Bechtel GA (2004) Stress among migrant and seasonal farmworkers in rural southeast North Carolina. J Rural Health 20:271–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Koday M, Rosenstein DI, Lopez GM (1990) Dental decay rates among children of migrant workers in Yakima, WA. Public Health Rep 105:530–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kupersmidt JB, Martin SL (1997) Mental health problems of children of migrant and seasonal farm workers: a pilot study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:224–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lacasaña M, Vázquez-Grameix H, Borja-Aburto VH (2006) Maternal and paternal occupational exposure to agricultural work and the risk of anencephaly. Occup Environ Med 63:649–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lantz PM, Reding D (1994) Cancer: beliefs and attitudes of migrant Latinos. J Am Med Assoc 272:31–32Google Scholar
  68. Lantz PM, Dupuis L, Reding D (1994) Peer discussions of cancer among Hispanic migrant farm workers. Public Health Rep 109:512–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Larson OW 3rd, Doris J, Alvarez WF (1990) Migrants and maltreatment: comparative evidence from central register data. Child Abuse Negl 14:375–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Larson K, McGuire J, Watkins E (1992) Maternal care coordination for migrant farmworker women: program structure and evaluation of effects on use of prenatal care and birth outcome. J Rural Health 8:128–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lee CV, McDermott SW, Elliott C (1990) The delayed immunization of children of migrant farm workers in South Carolina. Public Health Rep 105:317–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lewis RG, Fortune CR, Blanchard FT (2001) Movement and deposition of two organophosphorus pesticides within a residence after interior and exterior applications. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 51:339–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lukes SM, Miller FY (2002) Oral health issues among migrant farmworkers. J Dent Hyg 76:134–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Lukes SM, Simon B (2005) Dental decay in southern Illinois migrant and seasonal farmworkers: an analysis of clinical data. J Rural Health 21:254–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lukes SM, Simon B (2006) Dental services for migrant and seasonal farmworkers in US community/migrant health centers. J Rural Health 22:269–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lukes SM, Wadhawan S, Lampiris LN (2006) Healthy smiles healthy growth 2004 – basic screening survey of migrant and seasonal farmworker children in Illinois. J Public Health Dent 66:216–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Magaña CG, Hovey JD (2003) Psychosocial stressors associated with Mexican migrant farmworkers in the midwest United States. J Immigr Health 5:75–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Markowitz DL, Cosminsky S (2005) Overweight and stunting in migrant Hispanic children in the USA. Econ Hum Biol 3:215–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Martin SL, Gordon TE, Kupersmidt JB (1995) Survey of exposure to violence among the children of migrant and seasonal farm workers. Public Health Rep 110:268–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Martin SL, Kupersmidt JB, Harter KS (1996) Children of farm laborers: utilization of services for mental health problems. Community Ment Health J 32:327–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Martino JL, Vermund SH (2002) Vaginal douching: evidence for risks or benefits to women’s health. Epidemiol Rev 24:109–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. McKee MD, Baquero M, Anderson MR et al. (2009) Vaginal douching among Latinas: practices and meaning. Matern Child Health J 13:98–106Google Scholar
  83. Meade CD, Calvo A (2001) Developing community-academic partnerships to enhance breast health among rural and Hispanic migrant and seasonal farmworker women. Oncol Nurs Forum 28:1577–1584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Meade CD, Calvo A, Cuthbertson D (2002) Impact of culturally, linguistically, and literacy relevant cancer information among Hispanic farmworker women. J Cancer Educ 17:50–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Mines R (2000) Children in immigrant and nonimmigrant farmworker families: findings from the National Agricultural Workers Survey. In: Hernandez DJ (ed.) Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance. Committee on the Health and Adjustment of Immigrant Children and Families, National Research Council.(pp. 620–658) The National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  86. Moracco KE, Hilton A, Hodges KG (2005) Knowledge and attitudes about intimate partner violence among immigrant Latinos in rural North Carolina: baseline information and implications for outreach. Violence Against Women 11:337–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Mosher WD, Martinez GM, Chandra A (2004) Use of contraception and use of family planning services in the United States: 1982–2002. Adv Data 350:1–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. National Cancer Institute (2005) Surveillance, epidemiology, and end results. SEER cancer statistics. Incidence of cervix uteri cancer.
  89. National Research Council (2006) Food insecurity and hunger in the United States: an assessment of the measure. Panel to review the US Department of Agriculture’s Measurement of Food Insecurity and Hunger. In: Wunderlich GS and Norwood JL (eds.) Committee on National Statistics, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC Google Scholar
  90. Nord M, Andrews M, Carlson S (2005) Household food security in the United States, 2004. Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Program, Economic Research Services, USDA, Economic Research Report No.11, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  91. Ogden DL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR (2006) Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. JAMA 295:1549–1555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Osband ME, Tobin JR (1972) Lead paint exposure in migrant labor camps. Pediatrics 49:604–606.Google Scholar
  93. Perrin JM, Merkens MJ (1979) Blood lead levels in a rural population: relative elevations among migrant farmworker children. Pediatrics 64:540–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Pohl HR, Tylenda CA (2000) Breast-feeding exposure of infants to selected pesticides: a public health viewpoint. Toxicol Ind Health 16:65–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Quandt SA, Arcury TA, Rao P (2004) Agricultural and residential pesticides in wipe samples from farmworker family residences in North Carolina and Virginia. Environ Health Perspect 112(3):382–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Quandt SA, Shoaf JI, Tapia J (2006) Experiences of Latino immigrant families in North Carolina help explain elevated levels of food insecurity and hunger. J Nutr 136:2638–2644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Quandt SA, Clark HM, Rao P (2007) Oral health of children and adults in Latino migrant and seasonal farmworker families. J Immigr Minor Health 9:229–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Quinlan M, Mayhew C, Bohle P (2001) The global expansion of precarious employment, work disorganization, and consequences for occupational health: a review of recent research. Int J Health Serv 31:335–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Ramos-Gomez FJ, Tomar SL, Ellison J (1999) Assessment of early childhood caries and dietary habits in a population of migrant Hispanic children in Stockton, California ASDC. J Dent Child 66:395–403Google Scholar
  100. Rosenbaum S, Shin P (2005) Migrant and seasonal farmworkers: health insurance coverage and access to care. Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, Washington, DC. (accessed 5–26–08)
  101. Seid M, Castañeda D, Mize R (2003) Crossing the border for health care: access and primary care characteristics for young children of Latino farm workers along the US-Mexico border. Ambul Pediatr 3:121–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Shen H, Main KM, Virtanen HE (2007) From mother to child: investigation of prenatal and postnatal exposure to persistent bioaccumulating toxicants using breast milk and placenta biomonitoring. Chemosphere 67:S256–S262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Shipp EM, Cooper SP, del Junco DJ et al. (2007) Pesticide safety training among farmworker adolescents from Starr County, Texas. J Agric Saf Health 13:311–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Shotland J, Loonin D, Haas E (1989) Full fields, empty cupboards: the nutritional status of migrant farmworkers in America. Public Voice for Food and Health Policy, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  105. Skaer TL, Robison LM, Sclar DA (1996a) Cancer-screening determinants among Hispanic women using migrant health clinics. J Health Care Poor Underserved 7:338–354Google Scholar
  106. Skaer TL, Robison LM, Sclar DA (1996b) Financial incentive and the use of mammography among Hispanic migrants to the US. Health Care Women Int 17:281–291Google Scholar
  107. Sutton M, Sternberg M, Koumans EH (2007) The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among reproductive-age women in the United States, 2001–2004. Clin Infect Dis 45:1319–1326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sweeney C, Baumgartner KB, Byers T (2008) Reproductive history in relation to breast cancer risk among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. Cancer Causes Control 19:391–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Tsai J, Kaye WE, Bove FJ (2006) Wilms’ tumor and exposures to residential and occupational hazardous chemicals. Int J Hyg Environ Health 209:57–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Ungar BLP, Iscoe E, Cutler J (1986) Intestinal parasites in a migrant farmworker population. Arch Intern Med 146:513–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group (2006) United States cancer statistics: 2003 incidence and mortality. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute.
  112. US General Accounting Office (2000) Pesticides: improvements needed to ensure the safety of farmworkers and their children. Report to Congressional Requesters (GAO/RCED-00-40). US General Accounting Office, Washington, DC Google Scholar
  113. Vela Acosta M, Lee B (eds.) (2001) Migrant and Seasonal Hired Adolescent Farmworkers: A Plan to Improve Working Conditions. Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, WIGoogle Scholar
  114. Weathers AC, Garrison HG (2004) Children of migratory agricultural workers: the ecological context of acute care for a mobile population of immigrant children. Clin Pediatr Emerg Med 5:120–129Google Scholar
  115. Weathers A, Minkovitz C, O’Campo P (2003) Health services use by children of migratory agricultural workers: exploring the role of need for care. Pediatrics 111(5 Part 1):956–963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Weathers A, Minkovitz C, O’Campo P (2004) Access to care for children of migratory agricultural workers: factors associated with unmet need for medical care. Pediatrics 113:e276–e282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Weathers AC, Novak SP, Sastry N et al. (2008a) Parental nativity is an important factor associated with where children usually go for health care. Matern Child Health J 12:499–508 Google Scholar
  118. Weathers AC, Minkovitz CS, Diener-West M (2008b) The effect of parental immigration authorization on health insurance coverage for migrant Latino children. J Immigr Minor Health 10:247–254Google Scholar
  119. Weathers AC, Novak SP, Sastry N (2008c) Parental nativity affects children’s health and access to care. J Immigr Minor Health 10:155–165Google Scholar
  120. Weiss B, Amler S, Amler RW (2004) Pesticides. Pediatrics 113(4 Suppl):1030–1036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Weller SC, Pachter LM, Trotter RT 2nd (1993) Empacho in four Latino groups: a study of intra- and inter-cultural variation in beliefs. Med Anthropol 15:109–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Woolfolk M, Hamard M, Bagramian RA (1984) Oral health of children of migrant farm workers in northwest Michigan. J Public Health Dent 44:101–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Zahm SH, Blair A (1993) Cancer among migrant and seasonal farmworkers: an epidemiologic review and research agenda. Am J Ind Med 24:753–766PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara A. Quandt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Prevention Division of Public Health Sciences,Department of Family and Community MedicineWake Forest University School of Medicine USA

Personalised recommendations