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Regulation of Gene Expression

  • Pedro J. Chedrese
Chapter

All living organisms are genetically characterized by information stored in the genome as sequences of nucleotides. The genetic information required for organic development and functions is contained in the genes, which comprise only a fraction of the total sequences of nucleotides transmitted during every cell division and from generation to generation. Genes that express proteins can be divided in two main groups. The first group called constitutive or “housekeeping” genes encode slow turnover proteins required for basal functions and, therefore, are steadily expressed without regulation in most cells. The second group includes genes that encode proteins required for cell-specific biochemical activities and, therefore, are expressed only in particular cell groups. Some of these genes express high turnover proteins that are subject to rapid changes. Because these genes have restricted spatial patterns of expression, depending on their role, they can be highly regulated.

Keywords

Core Promoter Hormone Response Element Inducible cAMP Early Repressor bHLH Motif Cognate Transcription Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

5.8Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

AP-1:

activating protein-1, Jun-Fos heterodimer

AP-2:

activating protein-2

AR:

androgen receptor

ARE:

androgens response element

bHLH:

basic helix-loop-helix

BRE:

TFIIB recognition element

bZip:

DNA binding domain of the leucine zippers family of heterodimeric proteins

C/EBP:

CAAT box/enhancer binding protein

CaMK:

Ca2+-mediated kinase

CAP:

catabolic activator protein

CBF:

CAAT box-binding factor

CBP:

CREB binding protein

c-fos:

cellular protooncogene of the transforming gene of the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma viruses

c-jun:

cellular protooncogene of the transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus

COUP-TF:

chicken ovoalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor

CRE:

cAMP response element

CREB:

CRE-response element binding protein

CREM:

cAMP-responsive gene modulator

Cro repressor:

dimeric protein composed of identical subunits

CTCF:

CTC-binding factor

CTF:

CAAT binding transcription factor

DNMT:

DNA methyltransferase

DPE:

downstream promoter element

dsRNA:

double-stranded RNA

E-box:

sequence CACGTG that binds members of the basic helix-loop-helix

ER:

estrogen receptor

ERE:

estrogens response element

Fos:

transcription factor expressed by the c-fos oncogene

FSH:

follicle stimulating hormone

GAS:

interferon-gamma activated sequence promoter

GATA:

a family of transcription factors that contain two zinc finger motif and binds to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G)

GH:

growth hormone

GR:

glucocorticoid receptor

GRE:

glucocorticoids response element

GTFs:

general transcription factors

HAT:

histone acetyl transferase

hCG:

chorionic gonadotropin hormone

HDAC:

histone deacetylase

HMG:

high mobility group of proteins

HMG-box:

homologous DNA binding domain of the HMG proteins

HNF:

hepatocyte nuclear factor

HRE:

hormone response element

HSP:

heat shock proteins

HSP70:

heat shock protein-70

HTH:

helix-turn-helix

ICER:

inducible cAMP early repressor

IGF-II:

insulin like growth factor-II

Inr:

Initiator sequence

IPF:

insulin promoter factor

JAK:

Janus kinases

JNK:

Jun N-terminal kinase

Jun:

transcription factor expressed by the c-jun gene

KID:

kinase inducible domain

LH:

luteinizing hormone

MAD/MAX:

group of proteins of the bHLH family that can form heterodimers with myc and regulate transcription

MAP:

mitogen activated protein

MAPK:

mitogen-activated protein kinase

miRNA:

micro RNAs

MR:

mineralocorticoid receptor

MRE:

mineralocorticoids response element

MTF-1:

metal-responsive transcription factor-1

Myc:

transcription factor expressed by a gene originally described in the avian MC29 myelocytomatosis virus (v-myc). A homologous gene (c-myc) is located in the long arm of the human chromosome 8.

N-COR:

nuclear receptor co-repressor

NF-1:

nuclear factor-1.

NF-Y:

nuclear factor-Y

p300:

E1A-binding protein p300, also termed EP300

P450scc:

cytochrome P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage

PAX-8:

transcription factor expressed by a member of the paired box (PAX) family of genes that encode proteins that contain a paired box domain, an octapeptide, and a paired-type homeodomain. It is expressed in the thyroid and the kidney and binds thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase genes promoters

PIAS:

protein inhibitors of activated STATs

Pit-1:

a transcription factor expressed specifically in the pituitary gland; member of the POU-homeodomain family

PKA:

protein kinase-A

PKC:

protein kinase-C

POU:

acronym derived from the homeodomain proteins Pit-1, Oct and Unc-86

PR:

progesterone receptor

PRE:

progesterone response element

pre-miRNA:

precursor of miRNA

pri-miRNA:

primary transcript of an miRNA gene

RAR:

retinoic acid receptor

RID:

nuclear receptor interaction domain

RISC:

RNA-induced silencing complex

RNAi:

RNA interference

RRE:

retinoic acid response element

SF-1:

steroidogenic factor-1

SH2:

Src Homology (SH) region 2, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain originally described in proteins of the Rous sarcoma virus (src) oncogene family of tyrosine kinases

Sin3:

a negative regulator of transcription in yeast also known as SDII

siRNA:

short interfering RNA

SMRT:

silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptors

SOCS:

suppressors of cytokine signaling

SOX:

SRY box

Sp1:

selective promoter-1

SRC:

steroid receptor coactivator

SRE:

serum responsive element

SRF:

serum response factor

SRY:

sex-determining region of the Y chromosome

ssRNA:

single-stranded RNA

STATS:

signal transducers and activators of transcription

TBP:

TATA-binding protein

TCF/LEF:

T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor

TF:

transcription factor

TFIID:

transcription factor IID

THR:

thyroid hormone receptor

TPA:

12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate

TR:

thyroid hormone receptor

TRE:

TPA response element

TSE:

tissue specific element

TSH:

thyrotropin hormone

TTF-1:

thyroid transcription factor

Tx:

transcription start site

USF-1 and USF-2:

upstream stimulating factors 1 and 2, respectively

VDR:

vitamin-D receptor

wHTH:

winged HTH

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Saskatchewan College of Arts and ScienceSaskatoonCanada

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