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The Molecules That Transmit Information into the Cell: The Intracellular Signaling Pathways

  • Pedro J. Chedrese
  • Alejandro M. Bertorello
Chapter

Extracellular regulatory molecules convey information into the cell through a fast low energy complex of signals known as intracellular signaling pathways. The function of the pathways is to organize and amplify the signals in a way that a small number of ligands bound to receptors affect the activity of a large number of intracellular molecules. Signaling molecules can be divided into two main groups: the intracellular messengers and homology domain proteins.

Keywords

Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Adenylate Cyclase Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Guanylate Cyclase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

5'AMP:

adenosine monophosphate

AC:

Adenylate cyclase

ACh:

Acetylcholine

ACTH:

adrenocorticotropic hormone

AII:

angiotensin-II

Akt:

protein kinase-B, also termed PKB

ANP:

atrial natriuretic peptides

ATP:

adenosine triphosphate

BAD:

Bcl-2-associated death promoter

BDNF:

brain-derived neurotrophic factor

BMP:

bone morphogenetic protein

BNP:

B-type natriuretic peptide, also known as brain natriuretic peptide or GC-B

βARK:

β-adrenergic receptor kinase

Ca2+:

calcium ions

Ca2+-CaM:

Ca2+ bound to CaM

CaM:

calmodulin

cAMP:

cyclic adenosine monophosphate

c-fos:

cellular protooncogene of the transforming gene of the FBJ and FBR osteosarcome viruses

cGMP:

cyclic guanosine monophosphate

cGMP-PK:

cGMP-dependent protein kinase

c-jun:

cellular protooncogene of the transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus

CNP:

C-type natriuretic peptide

CO:

carbon monoxide

CREB:

cAMP response element binding protein

CRF:

corticotropin releasing factor

CSF:

colony-stimulating factor

Cα, Cβ, Cγ:

isotypes of the PKA C-subunit

EGF:

epidermal growth factor

EGF-R:

EGF receptor

Eph:

ephrins

ER:

endoplasmic reticulum

ERK:

extracellular signal regulated kinase

FGF:

fibroblast growth factor

Fos:

transcription factor expressed by the c-fos gene

FSH:

follicle-stimulating hormone

GABA:

γ-aminobutiric acid

GAP:

GTPase-activating protein

GC:

guanylate cyclase

GDP:

guanosine diphosphate

GEF:

Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor

GH:

growth hormone

GHRH:

growth hormone releasing hormone

GM-CSF:

granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

GnRH:

gonadotropin releasing hormone

Grb2:

growth factor receptor-bound protein-2

GRK:

G-protein-linked receptor kinase

GTP:

guanosine triphosphate

Gαi:

G-protein inhibitory α-subunit

Gαs:

G-protein stimulatory α-subunit

HGF:

hepatocyte growth factor

HPL:

human placental lactogen

IGF-I:

insulin-like growth factor-I

IGF-II:

insulin-like growth factor-II

IL:

interleukin

IP3:

inositol triphosphate

IRS-1:

insulin receptor substrate-1

Jak:

Janus kinase

Jun:

transcription factor expressed by the c-jun gene

LGIC:

ligand-gated ion channels

LH:

luteinizing hormone

L-type:

long lasting VSCC

mAch:

muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

MAPK:

mitogen-activated protein kinase

MARKS:

myristolated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate

M-CSF:

macrophage colony-stimulating factor

MEK:

MAP-kinase-kinase or MAPKK

mGC:

membrane-associated guanylate cyclase

MHC:

major histocompatibility complex

MIS:

Müllerian-inhibiting substance

MSH:

melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Myc:

transcription factor encoded by the c-myc gene

nACh-R:

nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

NGF:

nerve growth factor

NO:

nitric oxide

N-type:

neither long-lasting nor transient VSCC

PACAP:

pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide

PDE:

nucleotide phosphodiesterase

PDGF:

platelet-derived growth factor

PDKI:

phosphatidylinositol-dependent χ protein kinase

PH:

Pleckstrin homology

PI/PKC:

phosphatidylinositol/protein kinase-C

Pi:

inorganic phosphate

PI:

phosphatidylinositol

PI3-kinase:

phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase

PI-PLC:

phosphatidilinositol-specific phospholipase-C

PKA:

cAMP-dependent protein kinase-A

PKB:

protein kinase-B, also termed Akt

PKC:

protein kinase-C

PKG:

cGMP-dependent protein kinase

PLA2:

phospholipase-A2

PLC:

phospholipase-C

PRL:

prolactin

PTH:

parathyroid-stimulating hormone

PTP:

phosphotyrosine phosphatase-like receptors

RACK:

receptor for activated C-kinase

RAF:

MAP-kinase-kinase-kinase

ras:

oncogene of the Harvey (rasH) and Kristen (rasK) rat sarcoma viruses

Ras:

small G-protein, first identified as product of the ras oncogene

RH:

Ras homology domain

ROC:

receptor operated Ca2+ channel

S6:

ribosomal S6 kinase

SFE:

SMAD-binding element

sGC:

cytoplasmatic soluble guanylate cyclase

SH2 and SH3:

src homology region-2 and -3 respectively

SMAD:

Small Mothers Against Decapentaplegic

sPLA2:

secreted phopholipase-A2

src (pronounced “sark”):

retroviral oncogene (v-src) from the chicken Rous sarcoma retrovirus and its precursor (c-src)

STAT:

signal transducers and activators of transcription

TGF:

transforming growth factor

TK:

tyrosine kinase

TNF:

tumor necrosis factor

TRH:

thyrotropin-releasing hormone

Trk:

tropomyosin-related kinase receptor

TSH:

thyrotropin, or thyroid-stimulating hormone

TSH-R:

TSH receptor

T-type:

transient type VSCC

VD-R:

vitamin D receptor

VEGF:

vascular endothelial growth factor

VGCR:

voltage-gated channel receptors

VIP:

vasoactive intestinal peptide

VSCC:

voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel

PI(3,4,5)P3:

phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate

DAG:

1,2-diacylglycerol

PI(3,4)P2:

phosphatidylinositol 3,4-biphosphate

5-HT3:

5-hydroxytriptamine

PI(4,5)P2:

phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Saskatchewan College of Arts and ScienceSaskatoonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Medicine Membrane Signaling NetworksKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden

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