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Epigenetic Mechanisms of Ovarian Gene Regulation

  • Holly A. LaVoie
Chapter

Epigenetics refers to alterations in gene function that are heritable between generations of cells or animals and that do not involve a change in the DNA sequence itself [1]. Such alterations occur at the level of chromatin and include post-translational modifications of histone tails and methylation of DNA. In a more narrow sense, epigenetics can be used to describe chromatin altering events within a single cell or groups of cells that leads to changes in gene function in response to hormones or growth factors. This chapter will briefly describe the most common epigenetic marks and review studies of chromatin alterations as they relate to gene function in cells of the developing ovarian follicle and corpus luteum.

Keywords

Luteinizing Hormone Granulosa Cell Histone Modification Corpus Luteum Theca Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

24.6Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

Aurora kinases:

a family of serine/threonine kinases important for cell division

CBP/p300:

CREB-binding protein and related E1A binding protein p300

CEBPβ:

CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta

ChIP:

chromatin immunoprecipitation

CL:

corpus luteum

CoREST:

corepressor for RE1 silencing transcription factor (REST)

CYP11A:

gene coding for P450scc

CYP17:

gene coding for cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase

DNMT1 and DNMT3:

DNA cytosine-5 methyltransferases 1 and 3

FOS:

gene coding for c-Fos

GATA:

family of transcription factors that contain a two-zinc-finger motif and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G)

GCN5:

an histone acetyltransferase

GRMO2:

rat granulosa stable cell line

H2A.X:

core histone 2A variant

HATs:

histone acetyltransferases

HDAC1/2:

histone deacetylases 1 and 2

HDACs:

histone deacetylases

HMTs:

histone methyltransferases

HP1:

heterochromatin 1 protein

HSD3B:

gene(s) coding for 3β-HSD

JMJD2A-D:

histone demethylases of the Jumonji family

JMJD6:

histone demethylase of the Jumonji family

KLF13:

Kruppel-like factor 13

LDL:

low-density lipoprotein

LSD1:

lysine specific demethylase 1

MSK1/2:

mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinases 1 and 2

NPC1:

Niemann-Pick C1 gene

NuRD:

nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase

Pak1:

p21-activated kinase-1

PCAF:

p300/CBP-associated factor

PCOS:

polycystic ovary syndrome

PKA:

protein kinase A

PP1:

phosphatase type 1

PP2A:

phosphatase type 2A

PRMTs:

protein arginine methyltransferases

rPRL:

rat placental lactogen

RSK2:

ribosomal S6 kinase 2

SET domain:

a domain found in some lysine methyltransferases, derived from Drosophilia proteins designated suppressor of variegation, enhancer of zeste and trithorax

SF-1:

transcription factor steroidogenic factor 1, also termed NR5A1

Sin3:

a SWI independent corepressor found in complexes with HDACs

Sin3A:

Sin3 family member A

SNF2L:

nucleosome-remodeling ATPase

Sp1 and Sp3:

transcription factor specificity proteins 1 and 3

SRC-1:

steroid receptor coactivator

STAR:

gene coding for steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR) protein

STAT:

signal transducers and activators of transcription

SWI:

SWItch proteins, part of chromatin remodeling ATPase complexes

TAF250:

an histone acetyltransferase

TSA:

trichostatin A, an HDAC inhibitor

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cell Biology and AnatomyUniversity of South Carolina School of MedicineColumbiaUSA

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