Hormonal and Molecular Regulation of the Cytochrome P450 Aromatase Gene Expression in the Ovary


The cytochrome P450 aromatase (aromatase), encoded by the Cyp19a1 (Cyp19) gene, is the enzyme that converts androgens into estrogens in the ovarian granulosa cells. Estradiol-17β (estradiol), the most potent estrogen, is crucial for female and male fertility, as proved by the severe reproductive defects observed when its synthesis [1] or actions [2] are blocked. In the ovary, locally produced estradiol in concert with the pituitary gonadotropins is required for successful folliculogenesis and steroid production. Estradiol modulates the structure and function of female reproductive tissues, such as uterus and oviduct, and is required for the fluctuating patterns of biosynthetic and secretory activity of the gonadotropins in the pituitary gland, to generate the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH), and for the cyclical variations in sexual female behavior. Therefore, the coordinated and cell-specific expression of the aromatase gene in the ovary is crucial for the normal progression of the menstrual/estrous cycle. This chapter reviews the molecular, cellular, and normal physiological mechanisms regulating the expression of the aromatase gene in the ovary.


Luteinizing Hormone Granulosa Cell Corpus Luteum Luteal Cell Luteinizing Hormone Receptor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


23.5Glossary of Terms and Acronyms


oncogene of the retrovirus AKT8 with activity serine/threonine-specific protein kinase, also termed protein kinase-B (PKB)


activating transcription factor-3 binding site


bone morphogenetic protein;


breast cancer-1 early onset tumor suppressor gene


CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-β


cyclic Adenosine monophosphate


CREB-binding protein


cAMP-responsive element-like sequence


cAMP response element


CRE binding protein


cAMP-responsive element modulator




epidermal growth factor-1


estrogen receptor


extracellular regulated kinases


forkhead box-O1


follicle stimulating hormone


a family of transcription factors that contain two zinc finger motif and binds to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G)


growth differentiation factor


human chorionic gonadotropin


inducible cAMP early repressor


insulin growth factor-1


IGF-binding protein


protooncogene homolog B


LH receptor


liver receptor homolog-1


mitogen-activated protein kinases


Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, also termed MAP2K


nuclear response element


prostaglandin E2


prostaglandin F2α


phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase


protein kinase-A


protein kinase-B, also termed Akt


protein kinase-C


pregnant mare serum gonadotropin




steroidogenic factor-1


TATA binding protein


tumor necrosis factor-α


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive SciencesYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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