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Extracellular Signaling Receptors

  • Pedro J. Chedrese
  • Stella M. Celuch
Chapter

Classically, receptors were defined as cellular structures that recognize and bind hormones. In present days this definition is expanded to include receptors for a variety of other extracellular regulatory signaling molecules, such as growth factors and neurotransmitters. Accordingly, the term ligand was introduced to encompass all the extracellular signaling molecules that bind to receptors. The main attribute of receptors is their ability to specifically recognize a ligand among the many different molecules present in the environment surrounding the cells. Ligand-specific binding results in activation of intracellular signaling pathways, which amplify the signal and affect gene expression. Thus, receptors not only receive extracellular signals but also increase and transmit those signals to the genome and ultimately elicit a biological response.

Keywords

Biological Response Intracellular Signaling Pathway Inverse Agonist Radioligand Binding Assay Asymptotic Hyperbola 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

5-HT3:

5-hydroxytriptamine

7-TMS:

seven transmembrane segment

ACTH:

adrenocorticotropic hormone

cDNA:

complementary DNA

eCG:

equine chorionic gonadotropin

ELISA:

enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays

ER:

estrogen

FSH:

follicle stimulating hormone

GH:

growth hormone

GnRH:

gonadotropin-releasing hormone

GPCR:

G-protein-coupled receptor

GR:

glucocorticoids

hCG:

human chorionic gonadotropin

IGF:

insuline-like growth factor

LGIC:

ligand-gated ion channel

LH:

luteinizing hormone

MC1:

melanocortin receptor

MR:

mineralocorticoids

mRNA:

messenger RNA

MSH:

melanocyte-stimulating hormone

PR:

progesterone

PRL:

prolactin

RAR:

retinoic acid and 9-cis-retinoic acid

RIA:

radioimmunoassay

RT-PCR:

reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

STK:

serine-threonine kinase

TK:

tyrosine kinase

TR:

thyroid hormone

VDR:

vitamin-D

VIP:

vasointestinal peptide

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Saskatchewan College of Arts and ScienceSaskatoonCanada
  2. 2.Instituto de Investigaciones Farmacológicas, CONICETSaskatoonArgentina

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