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Prostaglandins and Their Mechanisms of Action in the Cyclic Ovary

  • Jorge A. Flores
  • Christy Barlund
Chapter

Prostaglandins (PG) belong to a diverse family of cell signaling molecules known as eicosanoids. Other members in this family include prostacyclins (PGI), thromboxanes (TX), and leukotrienes (LT). All eicosanoids (from eicosa-, Greek for “twenty”) are synthesized by oxygenation of 20-carbon essential fatty acids (EFA). There are three parallel pathways by which eicosanoids are produced depending on the starting EFA. In all these parallel pathways, eicosanoid production is mediated by the activity of two families of enzymes: cyclooxygenases and lypooxygenases. Cyclooxygenases, or COX, generate prostanoids, the collective term used for PG, PGI, and TX, while lypooxigenases generate the LT. Eicosanoids are found in all living cells; in mammals eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid are primarily involved in inflammation, immunity, and in central nervous system functions. Eicosanoids derived from the other two EFA, Dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid (DGLA) and eicosapentenoic acid (PA) are inactive or even anti- inflammatory [1].

Keywords

Granulosa Cell Corpus Luteum Luteal Cell Progesterone Secretion Prostanoid Receptor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

17.8Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

[Ca2+]i:

intracellular calcium concentration

9 K-PGR:

9-keto-PGE2-reductase

AA:

arachidonic acid

bHLH:

basic helix-loop-helix

C/EBP:

CAAT enhancing binding protein

CL:

corpus luteum

COX:

cyclooxygenases

CRE:

cAMP responsive element

DGLA:

dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid

DP:

PGD receptor

EDN1:

endothelin-1

EDN2:

endothelin-2

EDN3:

endothelin-3

EDNRA:

type A endothelin receptors

EDNRB:

type B endothelin receptors

EFA:

essential fatty acids

EP1-4:

PGE receptors with four subtypes

FP:

PGF receptor

IP:

PGI receptor

IP3:

inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

IRE:

interferon response element

LH:

luteinizing hormone

LLC:

large luteal steroidogenic cells

LT:

leukotrienes

MCP-1:

monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

NF kB:

or E-box nuclear factor kappa B

NSAID:

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

OT:

oxytocin

P4:

progesterone

PA:

eicosapentenoic acid

PG:

prostaglandins

PGDH:

15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase

PGFS:

prostaglandin F synthase

PGG2:

hydroperoxy endoperoxide prostaglandin G2

PGH2:

prostaglandin H2

PGI:

prostacyclins

PGT:

prostaglandin transporter

PKC:

Protein Kinase C

PLA2:

phospholipase A2

PLC:

phospholipase C

siRNA:

silencing RNA

SLC:

small luteal steroidogenic cells

TNF-α:

tumor necrosis-alpha

TX:

thromboxanes

TxA:

thromboxane receptor

USF:

Upstream stimulatory factor

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge A. Flores
    • 1
  • Christy Barlund
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA
  2. 2.Department of Large Animal Clinical SciencesUniversity of Saskatchewan Western College of Veterinary MedicineSaskatoonCanada

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