Prostaglandins and Their Mechanisms of Action in the Cyclic Ovary

  • Jorge A. Flores
  • Christy Barlund

Prostaglandins (PG) belong to a diverse family of cell signaling molecules known as eicosanoids. Other members in this family include prostacyclins (PGI), thromboxanes (TX), and leukotrienes (LT). All eicosanoids (from eicosa-, Greek for “twenty”) are synthesized by oxygenation of 20-carbon essential fatty acids (EFA). There are three parallel pathways by which eicosanoids are produced depending on the starting EFA. In all these parallel pathways, eicosanoid production is mediated by the activity of two families of enzymes: cyclooxygenases and lypooxygenases. Cyclooxygenases, or COX, generate prostanoids, the collective term used for PG, PGI, and TX, while lypooxigenases generate the LT. Eicosanoids are found in all living cells; in mammals eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid are primarily involved in inflammation, immunity, and in central nervous system functions. Eicosanoids derived from the other two EFA, Dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid (DGLA) and eicosapentenoic acid (PA) are inactive or even anti- inflammatory [1].


Granulosa Cell Corpus Luteum Luteal Cell Progesterone Secretion Prostanoid Receptor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


17.8Glossary of Terms and Acronyms


intracellular calcium concentration

9 K-PGR:



arachidonic acid


basic helix-loop-helix


CAAT enhancing binding protein


corpus luteum




cAMP responsive element


dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid


PGD receptor








type A endothelin receptors


type B endothelin receptors


essential fatty acids


PGE receptors with four subtypes


PGF receptor


PGI receptor


inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate


interferon response element


luteinizing hormone


large luteal steroidogenic cells




monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

NF kB:

or E-box nuclear factor kappa B


non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs






eicosapentenoic acid




15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase


prostaglandin F synthase


hydroperoxy endoperoxide prostaglandin G2


prostaglandin H2




prostaglandin transporter


Protein Kinase C


phospholipase A2


phospholipase C


silencing RNA


small luteal steroidogenic cells


tumor necrosis-alpha




thromboxane receptor


Upstream stimulatory factor


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge A. Flores
    • 1
  • Christy Barlund
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA
  2. 2.Department of Large Animal Clinical SciencesUniversity of Saskatchewan Western College of Veterinary MedicineSaskatoonCanada

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