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GnRH-GnRH-Receptor System in the Mammalian Female Reproductive Tract

  • Indrajit Chowdhury
  • Rajagopala Sridaran
Chapter

Reproduction in mammals is controlled by interactions between the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and gonads. The hypothalamus secretes synchronized pulses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) as the central initiator of the reproductive hormonal cascade from the diffusely arranged network of neuronal nerve endings of about 800 (rodents) to 1,500–2,000 (human) into the hypophyseal portal system every 30–120 min. GnRH stimulates the biosynthesis and secretion of the gonadotropic hormones, LH, and FSH by the anterior pituitary that in turn regulate the production of gametes and gonadal hormones as a key regulator of the reproductive functions. In the 1970 s, GnRH was first isolated from hypothalamus of pigs and sheep, and the subsequent realization that the decapeptide sequence was conserved across all mammals. This form of GnRH is referred as GnRH-I or type I mammalian GnRH (mGnRH). In 1977, Andrew Schally, Roger Guillemin, and co-workers shared the Nobel Prize in the field of Medicine for their discovery. In the early 1980 s, a second GnRH isoform from chickens was isolated (chicken GnRH; GnRH-II) [1] and a third isoform was identified in fish (salmon GnRH) [2]. Currently, a total of 23 different isoforms of chordate GnRH have been isolated [3–5]. All of these isoforms are decapeptides that share a high degree of sequence identity at both NH2- and COOH-terminals. This overview describes the recent literature regarding the GnRH primary structure, tissue distribution in female reproductive system, synthesis, secretion, and signaling pathways with current understanding on their cognate receptors and functional significance in relation to female reproductive system.

Keywords

Granulosa Cell Ovarian Cancer Cell Corpus Luteum Ovarian Cancer Cell Line Ovarian Surface Epithelial 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

13.10Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

AP-1:

activator protein-1

Bcl-2:

proto-oncogene

Bfl-1/A1:

Bcl-2 family member

Caov-3:

ovarian cell line

C/EBP:

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein

c-Fos:

product of the proto-oncogene c-fos that dimerize with c-Jun (c-Fos/c-Jun heterodimer) to form the transcription factor AP-1

c-IAP1:

caspase inhibitor

c-IAP2:

caspase inhibitor

c-Jun:

product of the proto-oncogene c-jun that dimerize with c-Fos to form the transcription factor AP-1.

CRE:

cAMP response element

DAG:

diacylglycerol

dbB:

diagonal band of Broca

EFO-21:

ovarian cancer cell line

EFO-27:

ovarian cancer cell line

EGF:

epidermal growth factor

EGFR:

epidermal growth factor receptor

EL:

extracellular loop

ER:

estrogen receptor

ERK:

extracellular signal-regulated kinase

FSH:

follicle stimulating hormone

GAP:

GnRH-associated peptide region

GGH3:

somatolactotroph cells

GLCs:

granulosa luteal cells

GnRH:

gonadotropin-releasing hormone

GnRHR:

gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor

GnSE:

GnRHR-specific enhancer

GPCR:

G protein-coupled receptors

GRAS:

GnRHR activating sequence

GRE/PRE:

glucocorticoid responsive element/ progesterone responsive element

GRKs:

G protein-coupled receptor kinases

hGL:

human granulosa-luteal cells

HPLC:

high-performance liquid chromatography

IEVT:

immortalized extravillous trophoblast

IkB:

inhibitor of kappa B

IL:

intracellular loop

IVF:

in vitro fertilization

JEG-3:

placental cell line

JNK:

Jun N-terminal kinase

LbT2:

gonadotroph cell line

LH:

luteinizing hormone

MAPK:

mitogen activated protein kinases

MEK 1:

threonine and tyrosine recognition kinase

MMP:

matrix metalloproteinase

MT1-R:

melatonin receptor subtype

MT2-R:

melatonin receptor subtype

NF-kB:

nuclear factor-kappa B

NRE:

negative regulatory element

OE:

ovarian epithelial cells

OSE:

ovarian surface epithelial cells

OVCAR-3:

ovarian cell line

PAI-I:

plasminogen activator inhibitor

PCR:

polymerase chain reaction

Pitx-1:

pan pituitary homeobox transcription factor

PKC:

protein kinase C

POA:

preoptic area of the brain

POA-AH:

preoptic area of anterior hypothalamus

PR:

progesterone receptor

PRE:

progesterone receptor elements

Ras:

oncogene of the Harvey (rasH) and Kristen (rasK) rat sarcoma viruses. These genes, which are frequently activated in human tumors, encode a 21 kD G-protein.

RBM-8A:

RNA-binding motif protein-8A

RT-PCR:

reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

SF-1:

steroidogenic factor-1

SK-OV-3:

ovarian cell line

Src:

name of the first described retroviral oncogene (v-src), from the chicken Rous sarcoma retrovirus and its precursor (c-src), which encode a membrane-associated protein kinase.

SURG-1:

sequence underlying responsiveness to GnRH element

SVOG-4m:

human ovarian granulosa-luteal cell line

TLCs:

theca luteal cells

SVOG-4o:

human ovarian granulosa-luteal cell line

TE-671:

neuronal cell line

TM:

trans-membrane

UTR:

untranslated region

IP3:

inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate

αT3-1:

ovarian cell line

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Indrajit Chowdhury
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rajagopala Sridaran
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyMorehouse School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyMorehouse School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

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