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Introduction to the Molecular Organization of the Endocrine/Reproductive System

  • Pedro J. Chedrese
Chapter

The endocrine system developed during evolution from single cells to multi-cellular organisms as a means of communication through chemical signals that coordinates multiple organic functions. The investigation of these chemical signals in the early years of the twentieth century gave origin to the science of endocrinology, which refers to the study of a group of specialized secretory organs called endocrine glandsthat deliver their products, called hormonesor first messengers, directly into the interstitial space and enter the circulatory system. Endocrine glands are called internal glandsto differentiate from exocrine glands, which deliver their products through ducts into the gastrointestinal tract or outside the body.

Keywords

Nitric Oxide Luteinizing Hormone Granulosa Cell Endocrine System Internal Environment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

5α-DHT:

5α-dihydrotestosterone

ACTH:

adrenocorticotropic hormone

ADH:

antidiuretic hormone

aFGF:

acidic fibroblast growth factor

AMH:

antimüllerian hormone or Müllerian-inhibiting substance (MIS)

AR:

androgen receptors

BDNF:

brain-derived neurotrophic factor

bFGF:

basic fibroblast growth factor

BMP:

bone morphogenic proteins

cGMP:

cyclic guanosine monophosphate

CNS:

central nervous system

CNTF:

ciliary neurotrophic factor

CO:

carbon monoxide

CRF:

corticotropin-releasing factor

CSF:

colony-stimulating factor

eCG:

equine chorionic gonadotropin

EGF:

epidermal growth factor also known as urogastrone

ER:

estrogen receptors

FGF:

fibroblast growth factor or heparin-binding growth factors

FSH:

follicle-stimulating hormone

GABA:

γ-aminobutyric acid

GDF-9:

growth differentiation factor-9

GH:

growth hormone

GHIH:

GH inhibitory hormone

GHRF:

growth hormone releasing factor

GMP:

guanosine monophosphate

GnRH:

gonadotropin releasing hormone, also called LH releasing hormone, LHRH HB-

HB-EGF:

heparin-binding EGF

hCG:

human chorionic gonadotropin

HGF:

hepatocyte growth factor

IGF-I:

insulin-like growth factor-I or somatomedin-C

IGF-II:

insulin-like growth factor-II

KAF:

keratinocyte autocrine factor or amphiregulin

KGF:

keratocyte growth factor

LH:

luteinizing hormone

LIF:

leukemia inhibitory factor

MIS:

Müllerian-inhibiting substance or antimüllerian hormone, AMH

NGFs:

the family of nerve growth factors, including nerve growth factor

NO:

nitric oxide

NT-3:

neurotropin-3

NT-6:

neurotropin-6

P450arom:

cytochrome P450 aromatase

PACAP:

pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide

PDGFs:

platelet-derived growth factors

PRL:

prolactin

SCF/KL:

stem cell factor/Kit ligand

SRIF:

somatotropin release-inhibiting factor or somatostatins also called GHIH

T3:

triiodothyronine

T4:

thyroxine

TGF:

transforming growth factor

TNF:

tumor necrosis factor

TRH:

thyrotropin releasing hormone

TSH:

thyroid stimulating hormone

VEGF:

vascular endothelial growth factor

VIP:

vasointestinal peptide

Bibilography

  1. 1.
    Baulieu E-E, Kelly PA. Hormones: From Molecules to Disease. Paris, New York: Hermann, Chapman and Hall, 1990.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
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  3. 3.
    Bolander F. Molecular Endocrinology, third edition. San Diego: Academic Press, 2004.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Diamond N. Perspectives in Reproduction and Sexual Behavior. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Grumbach MM, Conte FA. Disorders of sex differentiation. In: Wilson JD, Foster DW, Kronenberg HM, Larsen PR, editors. W. B Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, ninth edition. Philadelphia: W.B Saunders Company, 1998:1303–425.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wilson JD, Foster DW, Kronenberg H, et al. Principles of endocrinology. In: Wilson JD, Foster DW, Kronenberg HM, Larsen PR., editors. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, ninth edition. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1998:1–10.Google Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    Skinner MK. Cell–cell signaling in the testis and ovary. In: Bradshaw RA, Dennis EA, editors. Handbook of Cell Signaling, third volume. San Diego: Academic Press, 2003:531–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Saskatchewan College of Arts and ScienceSaskatoonCanada

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