Electron Backscatter Diffraction in Low Vacuum Conditions
Most current scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) have the ability to analyze samples in a low vacuum mode, whereby a partial pressure of water vapor is introduced into the SEM chamber, allowing the characterization of nonconductive samples without any special preparation. Although the presence of water vapor in the chamber degrades electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns, the potential of this setup for EBSD characterization of nonconductive samples is immense. In this chapter we discuss the requirements, advantages, and limitations of low vacuum EBSD (LV-EBSD), and explain how this technique can be applied to a two-phase ceramic composite, as well as hydrated biominerals, as specific examples of when LV-EBSD can be invaluable.
KeywordsDwell Time Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy Silicon Single Crystal EBSD Pattern Cascade Electron
Part of this work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in part under Contract W-7405-Eng-48, and in part under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. We gratefully acknowledge Jennifer Giocondi and Christine Orme at LLNL for the brushite single crystals, as well as Tomoko Sano and James Campbell of the Army Research Laboratory for the ceramic composite.
- Danilatos GD (1981) Design and construction of an atmospheric or environmental SEM (part 1). Scanning 4:9–20Google Scholar
- Danilatos GD, Postle R (1983) Design and construction of an atmospheric or environmental SEM-2. Micron 14:41–52Google Scholar
- Danilatos GD (1985) Design and construction of an atmospheric or environmental SEM (part 3). Scanning 7:26–42Google Scholar
- Danilatos GD (1990) Design and construction of an environmental SEM (part 4). Scanning 12:23–27Google Scholar
- Giocondi JL, Orme CA (2006) Unpublished dataGoogle Scholar
- Robinson VNE (1974) A Wet stage modification to a scanning electron microscope. 8th International congress for electron microscopy. Australian Academy of Science, Vol II, 50–51Google Scholar
- Sano T, Glide G, Campbell J et al (2006a) Correlation between microstructure and mechanical properties for hot pressed TiB2-AlN composites. Presentation at the 30th international Cocoa Beach conference and exposition on advanced ceramics and composites, January 22–27, 2006. Cocoa Beach, FLGoogle Scholar
- Sano T, Campbell J, Glide G et al (2006b) Investigation of the synergistic effect on the flexural strength of TiB2-AlN by microstructural characterization. Poster at the Gordon research conference for solid state studies in ceramics, August 13–17, 2006. Proctor Academy, Andover, NHGoogle Scholar
- Sigee C (1998) Environmental SEM and X-ray microanalysis of biological materials. Mikrochim Acta 15:283–293Google Scholar