Advertisement

Measurement of the Five-Parameter Grain Boundary Distribution from Planar Sections

  • Gregory S. Rohrer
  • Valerie Randle
Chapter

Although EBSD is essentially a surface measurement technique, strategies have been developed to extend its capabilities to the characterisation of microstructure in three dimensions. These developments have been realised because advances in both EBSD technology and computing power have rendered the collection of large data sets a routine matter. There are several scientific motivations for characterizing the three-dimensional structure of polycrystals by EBSD. In this chapter, we describe the application of EBSD to the measurement of internal interface planes by application of both serial sectioning and also a stereological technique known as the “five-parameter analysis.”

Keywords

Boundary Plane Coincidence Site Lattice Twist Boundary Tilt Boundary Plane Distribution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work at Carnegie Mellon University was supported primarily by the MRSEC program of the National Science Foundation under Award Number DMR-0520425. The work at Swansea was partially supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

References

  1. Adams BL (1986) Description of the intercrystalline structure distribution in polycrystalline materials. Metall Trans 17A:2199–2207Google Scholar
  2. Amouyal Y, Rabkin E, Mishin Y (2005) Correlation between grain boundary energy and geometry in Ni-rich NiAl. Acta Mater 53:3795–3805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cai B, Adams BL, Nelson TW (2007) Relation between precipitate-free zone width and grain boundary type in 7075-T7 Al alloy. Acta Mater 55:1543–1553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dillon S, Rohrer GS (2008) Characterization of the grain boundary character and energy distributions of yttria using automated serial sectioning and EBSD in the FIB. J Am Ceram Soc (submitted)Google Scholar
  5. Downey ST II, Bembridge N, Kalu PN, Miller HM, Rohrer GS, Han K (2007) Grain boundary plane distributions in modified 316 LN steel exposed at elevated and cryogenic temperatures. J Mater Sci 42:9543–9547CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Field DP, Adams BL (1992) Interface cavitation damage in polycrystalline copper. Acta Metall Mater 40:1145–1157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hilliard JE (1962) Specification and measurement of microstructural anisotropy. T Metall Soc AIME 224:1201–1211Google Scholar
  8. Homer ER, Adams BL, Fullwood DT (2006) Recovery of the grain boundary character distribution through oblique double sectioning. Scripta Mater 54:1017–1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jones R, Owen G, Randle V (2008) Carbide precipitation and grain boundary plane selection in overaged type 316 austenitic stainless steel. Mater Sci Eng A496:256--261Google Scholar
  10. Kim C-S, Massa TR, Rohrer GS (2008) Interface character distributions in WC-Co composites. J Am Ceram Soc 91:996–1001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Konrad J, Zaefferer S, Raabe D (2006) Investigation of orientation gradients around a hard Laves particle in a warm-rolled Fe3Al-based alloy using a 3D EBSD-FIB technique. Acta Mater 54:1369–1373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Larsen RJ, Adams BL (2004) New stereology for the recovery of grain-boundary plane distributions in the crystal reference frame. Metall Trans 35A:1991–1998Google Scholar
  13. Lejcek P, Hofmann S, Paidar P (2003) Solute segregation and classification of [100] tilt grain boundaries in α-iron: consequences for grain boundary engineering. Acta Mater 51:3951–3963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Miyamoto H, Ikeuchi K, Mimaki T (2004) The role of grain boundary plane orientation on intergranular corrosion of symmetric and asymmetric [110] tilt grain boundaries in directionally solidified pure copper. Scripta Mater 50:1417–1421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Moraweic A (2004) Orientation and rotations: Computations in crystallographic texture. Springer Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  16. Pang Y, Wynblatt P (2005) Correlation between grain-boundary segregation and grain-boundary plane orientation in Nb-doped TiO2. J Am Ceram Soc 88:2286–2291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pennock GM, Drury MR, Spiers CJ (2006) Grain boundary populations in wet and dry NaCl. Mater Sci Tech 22:1307–1315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pennock G, Coleman M, Drury M, Randle V (2008) Grain boundary plane populations in minerals; the example of wet NaCl after low strain deformation. Contrib Mineral Petr (in press)Google Scholar
  19. Randle V (1995) Crystallographic characterisation of planes in the scanning electron microscope. Mater Charact 34:29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Randle V (1997) The role of the grain boundary plane in cubic polycrystals. Acta Mater 46:1459–1480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Randle V (2001) A methodology for grain boundary plane assessment by single trace analysis. Scripta Mater 44:2789–2794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Randle V, Davies H (2002) A comparison between three-dimensional and two-dimensional grain boundary plane analysis. Ultramicroscopy 90:153–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Randle V, Rohrer G, Kim C, Hu Y (2006) Changes in the five-parameter grain boundary character distribution in alpha-brass brought about by iterative thermomechanical processing. Acta Mater 54:4489–4502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Randle V, Rohrer G, Hu Y (2008a) Five-parameter grain boundary analysis of a titanium alloy before and after low temperature annealing. Scripta Mater 58:183–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Randle V, Rohrer GS, Miller HM, Coleman M, Owen GT (2008b) Five-parameter grain boundary distribution of commercially grain boundary engineered nickel and copper. Acta Mater 56:2363–2373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rohrer GS, Saylor DM, El Dasher B, Adams BL, Rollett AD, Wynblatt P (2004) The distribution of internal interfaces in polycrystals. Z Metallkd 95:197–214Google Scholar
  27. Saylor DM, Rohrer GS (2002) Determining crystal habits from observations of planar sections. J Am Ceram Soc 85:2799–2804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Saylor DM, Morawiec A, Rohrer GS (2003) Distribution of grain boundaries in magnesia as a function of five macrosopic parameters. Acta Mater 51:3663–3674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Saylor DM, El Dasher B, Sano T, Rohrer GS (2004a) Distribution of grain boundaries in SrTiO3 as a function of five macroscopic parameters. J Am Ceram Soc 87:670–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Saylor DM, El Dasher B, Adams BL, Rohrer GS (2004b) Measuring the five-parameter grain-boundary distribution from observations of planar sections. Metall Mater Trans A 35:1981–1989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Saylor DM, El Dasher B, Pang Y, Miller HM, Wynblatt P, Rollett AD, Rohrer GS (2004c) Habits of grains in dense polycrystalline solids. J Am Ceram Soc 87:724–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Saylor DM, El Dasher B, Rollett AD, Rohrer GS (2004d) Distribution of grain boundaries in aluminium as a function of five macrosopic parameters. Acta Mater 52:3649–3655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Uchic MD, Groeber MA, Dimiduk DM, Simmons JP (2006) 3D microstructural characterization of nickel superalloys via serial-sectioning using a dual beam FIB-SEM. Scripta Mater 55:23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wolf D, Lutsko JF (1989) On the relationship between tilt and twist grain boundaries. Z Kristallogr 189:239–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wright SI, Larsen RJ (2002) Extracting twins from orientation imaging microscopy scan data. J Microsc 205:245–252CrossRefPubMedMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  36. Wynblatt P, Takashima M (2001) Correlation of grain boundary character with wetting behaviour. Interface Sci 9:265–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations