The Noether Theorems as Seen by Contemporaries and by Historians of Science

  • Yvette Kosmann-Schwarzbach
Part of the Sources and Studies in the History of Mathematics and Physical Sciences book series (SHMP)


In 1918 in Göttingen, Klein was certainly the most senior and important member of the faculty, Hilbert was a dominant, internationally acknowledged mathematician, whileWeyl was a slightly younger contemporary of Noether whose outstanding talent was already recognized. Einstein was a celebrity, then residing in Berlin, whose work was being followed closely in Göttingen. We shall review the way in which Noether’s achievements were perceived and acknowledged by each of them at the time, before analyzing later testimonies to her work as a mathematician and the extremely modest role assigned to her early work up to and including the Invariante Variationsprobleme.


English Translation Gauge Invariance Invariance Property Collect Paper Invariance Principle 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre de Mathématiques Laurent SchwartzÉcole PolytechniquePalaiseauFrance

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