The history of order tensor theories is a long and winding one. Since DE GENNES introduced what he called the tensor order parameter in [57, 58] to phrase a LANDAU- GINZBURG-type theory for the nematic order, many steps have been taken toward a general continuum theory of nematics with tensorial order. Using standard methods of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, HESS [142, 143] and later OLMSTED and GOLDBART [254, 255] obtained constitutive theories for homogeneous alignments, later generalized by HESS and PARDOWITZ to include also spatial variations . All these attempts were impaired by not yielding the full anisotropy of viscosities predicted by the ERICKSEN-LESLIE director theory. An extension using a codeformational model was proposed in , and while it recovered the complete anisotropy of viscosities, it failed to be otherwise fully consistent with the phenomenological ERICKSEN-LESLIE theory .
KeywordsIsotropic Phase Dissipation Function Order Tensor Tricritical Point Elastic Energy Density
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