The Emergence of Fermions and The E11 Content

  • François Englert
  • Laurent Houart
Conference paper


Claudio’s warm and endearing personality adds to our admiration for his achievements in physics a sense of friendliness. His constant interest in fundamental questions motivated the following presentation of our attempt to understand the nature of fermions. This problem is an essential element of the quantum world and might be related to the quest for quantum gravity. We shall review how space-time fermions can emerge out of bosons in string theory and how this fact affects the extended Kac-Moody approach to the M-theory project.


Partition Function Open String High Energy Phys Closed String Dynkin Diagram 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Service de Physique Théorique and The International Solvay InstitutesUniversité Libre de BruxellesSpain

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