Supersymmetries with Neutrons and Protons
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In this chapter we present the logical combination of ideas introduced previously. In Chap. 3 fermion degrees of freedom were introduced in the interacting boson model (IBM), leading to a description of odd-mass nuclei in the context of the interacting boson–fermion model (IBFM) and, after due consideration of the appropriate superalgebras, to a simultaneous description of even–even and odd-mass nuclei. The purpose of Chap. 4, on the other hand, was the introduction of the F-spin degree of freedom in the IBM to distinguish between neutron and proton bosons, with several consequences such as a better microscopic foundation of the IBM, the existence of F-spin multiplets of nuclei and the occurrence of states with a mixed-symmetry character in neutrons and protons.
In this chapter we combine these two extensions of the IBM and describe nuclei with bosons and fermions that can be of neutron or proton character. In the context of a supersymmetric description, this formalism allows a clear...