Phantom Limb Pain; Prevalence, Mechanisms and Associated Factors

  • Cliff Richardson


This chapter reviews the literature regarding phantom limb pain (PLP) following limb amputation. Controversies exist over the incidence and prevalence, causes, mechanisms and management of PLP. Owing to a lack of effective treatment for the condition, interest has turned to the potential to pre-empt PLP. Pre-emption needs targets, and interest has focused upon pre-amputation pain. A lack of success with pain pre-emption has led to interest in other factors which may be associated with PLP. To ensure rigour, before addressing factors that are associated with PLP, it is necessary to tackle controversies within PLP. Each area of controversy will be reviewed with the final section concentrating on those aspects, inherent within an individual, that play a role in PLP development and/or maintenance.


Dorsal Horn Coping Style Epidural Infusion Phantom Limb Pain Lower Limb Amputee 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Adult NursingUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK

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